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fenitrothion (Sumithion) Chemical Profile 4/85

                                 fenitrothion

      CHEMICAL NAME:      O,O-Dimethyl O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl) phosphoro-
                          thioate (56)

      DEC INGRED. CODE:

      TRADE NAME(S):      Sumithion, Accothion, Agrothion, Cytel, Dybar,
                          Folithion, Novathion, Nuvanol (56)

      FORMULATION(S):     Emulsifiable concentrate, ULV, wettable powder,
                          granules, dust.  Oil-based liquid spray (56).

      TYPE:               Organophosphate insecticide-miticide

      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Sumitomo Chemical Co., LTD.
                          15 5-chome, Kitahama
                          Higashi-ku, Osaka, Japan

      STATUS:             General use

      PRINCIPAL USES:  For controlling chewing and sucking insects on rice,
      orchard fruits, vegetables, cereals, cotton, and forest.  Also fly,
      mosquito, and cockroach control on farms and in public health programs
      by residual contact sprays (56).


                                  I.  EFFICACY

      Important Pests Controlled:  Aphids, leafhoppers, plant hoppers, rice
      borers, mites, armyworms, bollworm, bollweevils, cockroaches, bedbugs,
      mosquitoes, flies, gnats, whiteflies, scale, thrips, codling moths, mealy
      bugs, pear psylla, stem borers, spruce budworm, lygus bugs and many
      others (8a).
           Gives a fast clean-up with long residual effectiveness.  Somewhat
      effective against mites.  Most effective against sucking and biting
      insects.  Good penetrative action.  Expressed ovicidal activity.  Non-
      systemic.  Considered as effective as parathion but much safer to handle
      (8a).


                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      MOLECULAR FORMULA:   C9 H12 NO5 P S (62)

      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:    277.2 (62)

      PHYSICAL STATE:      Yellow-brown liquid (technical grade) (62)

      BOILING POINT:       140-145 C (decomp.)/0.1 mmHg (technical grade) (62)

      VAPOR PRESSURE:      18 mPa at 20 C (technical grade) (62)

      SOLUBILITY:          14 mg/l water at 30C (technical grade) (62)


                           III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION

      OSHA STANDARD:  None established

      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established

      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established

      TOXICOLOGY

           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY

               DERMAL:  LD50 = 1300 mg/kg (rat) (56)
                        LD50 (rat) = 890 mg/kg (male), 1200 mg/kg (female)
                          (62).
                        No irritation (39)

               ORAL:    LD50 = 800 mg/kg (female rat) (62)

               EYES:    No eye irritation (39)

           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:

           Rats (15 males and 15 females per group) were orally administered at
      doses of 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 ppm dietary level of Sumithion for 92 weeks to
      check cholinesterase activity.  No depression of cholinesterase activity
      of plasma and red blood cell was observed throughout the experimental
      period by the feeding of 2.5 ppm Sumithion.  Plasma (but not red blood
      cell) cholinesterase activity showed a slight decrease at 5 ppm level
      during the early period of feeding, but it recovered to the same level as
      the control group.  At 10 ppm level the depression of plasma and red
      blood cell cholinesterase was more significant but again they tended to
      recovery with the longer feeding.  No reduction was observed in the brain
      cholinesterase activity in any dosage group at the termination of
      feeding.  The maximum no-effect level Sumithion estimated from the effect
      of cholinesterase activity was to be 5 ppm.  No adverse effects were
      observed histopathologically on all tissues examined (39).
           Technical Sumithion was administered to pregnant albino rabbits at
      daily rates of 0.3 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg of body weight for 13 days early
      in gestation.  Pregnant rabbits of the positive control group were given
      daily an oral dose of Thalidomide (37.5 mg/kg/day), and the results
      obtained demonstrated susceptibility of this strain to teratogenic
      agents.  No adverse effects on body weight gain were noted which could
      be attributed to fenitrothion.  No deaths or unusual reactions were
      noted among females.  Fetal mortality was not affected by the treatment
      with Sumithion nor were any external and skeletal abnormalities
      observed among the fetuses obtained from dams treated with Sumithion
      (39).


                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

           Some hazard to birds, fish, and beneficial insects.  Hazardous to
      honey bees.  Biological magnification unlikely.  Certain fruit and
      vegetable crops have been injured by high rates.  Check label (1).
           LC50 (48 hr) for carp is 4.1 mg/l (62).

      Test Fish            Formulation      TLM (ppm)      Exposure Time (hr)
      _________            ___________      _________      __________________

      Cyprinus carpio      Tech. grade        4.4                  48
      Cyprinus auratus     Tech. grade        3.4                  48
      Orizias latipes      Tech. grade        3.8                  48
      Eel                  2% Dust            >10                  24
      Eel                  2% dust            >10                  48
      Rainbow trout        50% EC             3.2                  48
                                                                   (Ref. 39)

      Toxicity to Honey Bees:
           No initial or residual fumigant toxicity level.

                                        Equivalent full rate of application
      Insecticides     Formulation         (kg-active ingredient per ha)
      ____________     ___________         _____________________________

      Bromophos          20% EC                        0.50
      DDT                20% EC                        1.00
      Malathion          50% EC                        1.25
      Sumithion          60% EC                        1.13
                                                                    (Ref. 39)

      Fate of Residue in Soil and Water:
           Sumithion was very stable under sterile acidic conditions at 37 C,
      while under alkaline conditions it was hydrolyzed rapidly with a
      half-life of 3 days and less than 24 hours at pH 11 and pH 13,
      respectively (39).
           Fate of Sumithion in river water with sediment was demonstrated
      by using actual river water containing 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg per liter
      of Sumithion.  The half-life of Sumithion in river water was
      approximately 50 hours in aerated sample and 30-40 hours in the
      non-aerated samples because of aerophobic bacteria (39).
           Decomposition and leaching of Sumithion in four different types of
      soil were studied under laboratory conditions.  C-14 labeled Sumithion
      at 10 ppm was added to 2 kinds of silty loam, sandy loam and sandy
      soil, and kept at 25 C in the dark under upland or submerged
      conditions.  Under upland conditions Sumithion was decomposed with
      half-lives of 12-28 days depending on the types of soil.  Major
      decomposition products were 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol and carbon dioxide.
      3-methyl-4-nitrophenol formed during early period of incubation,
      amounted to 10-20%, while the amount of carbon dioxide reacted
      approximately 40% after 60 day incubation in the silty loam and the
      sandy soil.  Under submerged conditions decomposition of Sumithion was
      even more rapid in comparison with upland condition and
      amino-Sumithion, the major metabolite was produced quite rapidly; in
      the silty and sandy loam 50-70% of Sumithion was converted to amino
      Sumithion in approximately 10 days.  Since Sumithion was stable in
      sterilized soil, microorganisms might play a major role in the
      decomposition, fungi being likely to be more active than bacteria.  In
      the leaching study, Sumithion and its radioactive decomposition
      products were hardly eluted from three types of soil and remained at or
      near the top.  Only in sandy soil with low organic matter and clay
      content, these compounds were loosely bound to the soil and migrated
      easily with moving water.  The soil bacteria Bacillus subtilis,
      converted more than half of P-32 labeled Sumithion to the amino
      analogue under aerobic conditions at 37 C in 24 hours.  Sumithion is
      gradually inactivated by other bacterial species including
      gram-positive and gram-negative ones, but not by fungi and yeasts (39).

      Approximate Residual Period:  1-3 weeks on plants and inert surfaces (1).


                      V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES

           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.

           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.

      FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING BY ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES

           Symptoms of acute poisoning develop during exposure or within 12
      hours (usually within four hours) of contact.  HEADACHE, DIZZINESS,
      WEAKNESS, INCOORDINATION, MUSCLE TWITCHING, TREMOR, NAUSEA, ABDOMINAL
      CRAMPS, DIARRHEA, and SWEATING are common early symptoms.  Blurred or
      dark vision, confusion, tightness in the chest, wheezing, productive
      cough, and PULMONARY EDEMA may occur.  Incontinence, unconsciousness
      and convulsions indicate very severe poisoning.  SLOW HEARTBEAT,
      salivation, and tearing are common.  TOXIC PSYCHOSIS, with manic or
      bizarre behavior, has led to misdiagnosis of acute alcoholism.  Slowing
      of the heartbeat may rarely progress to complete sinus arrest.
      RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION may be fatal.  Continuing daily absorption of
      organophosphate at intermediate dosage may cause an INFLUENZA-LIKE
      ILLNESS characterized by weakness, anorexia, and malaise (25).

           SKIN CONTACT:  Bathe and shampoo victim with soap and water if
      there is any chance that skin and hair are contaminated (25).

           INGESTION:  If victim is alert and respiration is not depressed,
      give Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of water to induce
      vomiting.  Adults (12 years and over): 30 ml; children under 12 years: 15
      ml (25).

      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:

      Administer ATROPINE SULFATE intravenously, or intramuscularly, if IV
      injection is not possible.
      In MODERATELY SEVERE poisoning:  Adult dosage:  0.4-2.0 mg repeated
      every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved:  tachycardia (pulse
      of 140 per minute), flushing, dry mouth, dilated pupils.  Maintain
      atropinization by repeated doses for 2-12 hours or longer depending on
      severity of poisoning.
      Dosage for children under 12 years:  0.05 mg/kg body weight, repeated
      every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved.  Maintain
      atropinization with repeated dosage of 0.02-0.05 mg/kg.
      SEVERELY POISONED individuals may exhibit remarkable tolerance to
      atropine; two or more times the dosages suggested above may be needed.
      Administer PRALIDOXIME (Protopam (TM)-Ayerst, 2-PAM) in cases of severe
      poisoning in which respiratory depression, muscle weakness and
      twitchings are severe.
      Adult dosage:  1.0 gm intravenously at no more than 0.5 gm per minute.
      Child's dose (under 12 years):  20-50 mg/kg (depending on severity of
      poisoning) intravenously, injecting no more than half the total dose
      per minute.
      Dosage of pralidoxime may be repeated in 1-2 hours, then at 10-12 hour
      intervals if needed.  In very severe poisonings, dosage rates may be
      doubled (25).


                          VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION

           To be developed.


                                 VII.  COMPATIBILITY

           Generally compatible with most orchard pesticides (1).  Compatible
      with most conventional insecticides and fungicides.  However, when
      mixed with alkaline materials, Sumithion should be used as soon as
      possible (39).


                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES

      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Do not store near feed or feed products.  Keep
      container closed.  Keep out of reach of children.   Decontaminate,
      destroy and do not reuse empty containers.  Do not get in eyes, on
      skin, or on clothing.  Do not breathe vapor or mist.  Keep away from
      heat, sparks, and open flame (39).

      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  While handling, wear protective gloves and goggles
      or full face shield (56).


                      IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS

                     IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                  (800) 424-9300
                      PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC


                               X.  LITERATURE CITED

       1.  Harding, W.C.  1979.  Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
               and miticides.  Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
               30 pp.

       8a. Thomson, W. T.  1976.  Agricultural chemicals - book 1:
               insecticides, acaricides, and ovicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson
               Publ., Indianapolis, IN.  232 pp.

      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.

      39.  Sumitomo Chemical Co., LTD.  1977.  Technical manual:  Sumithion.
               Osaka, Japan.

      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.

      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.

      4/23/85