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fenthion (Baytex, Entex) Chemical Profile 4/85

                                     fenthion

      CHEMICAL NAME:      O,O-Dimethyl O-[3-methyl-4-(methylthio)phenyl]
                          phosphorothioate (56)

      DEC INGRED. CODE:

      TRADE NAME(S):      Baytex (Mobay Chemical Corp.); Baycid, Entex, Baytex,
                          Lebaycid, Tiguvon (Bayer AG) (56).

      FORMULATION(S):     Spray concentrate, liquid concentrate (Baytex);
                          spray concentrate (Entex); pour-on, ready-to-use
                          solution (Tiguvon); emulsifiable concentrate,
                          wettable powder, ULV, granular, dust (Lebaycid) (56).

      TYPE:               Organophosphate insecticide

      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Mobay Chemical Company
                          Agricultural Chemicals Division
                          P.O. Box 4913
                          Hawthorne Rd.
                          Kansas City, MO 64120

                          Bayer AG
                          Pflanzenschutz Zentrum Monheim
                          5090 Leverkusen
                          Bayerwerk, West Germany

      STATUS:             Restricted use

      PRINCIPAL USES:  Baytex for effective control of mosquitoes and flies
      as well as insect pests on ornamental plants.
           Entex Spray Concentrate is registered in the U.S. and Canada for
      additional use by pest control operators.
           Tiguvon is registered for control of cattle grubs, flies, and
      lice; and as Spotton for controlling cattle grubs on beef cattle.
           Lebaycid for controlling leafhoppers, cereal bugs, and rice stem
      borers.  It is outstanding for its effectiveness against fruit flies
      (56).


                                  I.  EFFICACY

           Baytex combines long residual effect with a wide range of
      insecticidal effectiveness.  One of its outstanding characteristics is
      the excellent control of flies, mosquitoes, ticks, roaches, and lice
      that have become resistant to chlorinated hydrocarbons.  Another
      feature of this compound is its residual activity on alkaline surfaces.
      Sprays can be applied to fresh whitewash without deleterious effects to
      the insecticide and without staining the whitewash (38a).

      Important Pests Controlled:  Flies, mosquitoes, roaches, ticks, lice,
      bedbugs, crickets, armyworms, cattle grubs, thrips, leafminers, codling
      moth, psylla, bollworm, horn flies, fleas, aphids, leafhoppers, ants,
      mites and others (8a).
           It has given control of insects in stored products from four to
      sixteen months.  It gave 100% control of mosquitoes after forty-two weeks
      when applied to the sides of barns (8a).


                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      MOLECULAR FORMULA:   C10 H15 O3 P S2 (62)

      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:    278.3 (62)

      PHYSICAL STATE:      Colorless liquid (pure compound); brown oil
                           (technical product, 95-98% pure) (62).

      ODOR:                Weak garlic odor (technical product) (62)

      BOILING POINT:       87 C/0.01 mmHg (pure compound) (62)

      VAPOR PRESSURE:      4 mPa at 20 C (pure compound) (62)

      SOLUBILITY:          2 mg/kg water at 20 C (pure compound) (62)


                           III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION

      OSHA STANDARD:  None established

      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established

      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 0.2 mg/m3;
                                skin notation (15c).

      TOXICOLOGY

           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY

               DERMAL:  LD50 = 330-500 mg/kg (rat); more toxic to dogs and
                          poultry (62).
                        LD50 = 1680 mg/kg (technical product, male rat);
                          2830 mg/kg (technical product, female rat) (56).

               ORAL:    LD50 (rat) = 190-315 mg/kg (male); 245-615 mg/kg
                          (female) (62).
                        LD50 = 255-298 mg/kg (technical product, rat) (56)

               INHALATION:  LC50 (mg/l/60 min) =  3000 (male rat); 2400
                              (female rat) (38a).

           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:

           In 2-yr feeding trials NEL for rats 3 mg/kg diet; in 1-yr trials
      dogs receiving 50 mg/kg diet showed no loss of weight or food consumption
      (62).


                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

          Some hazard to birds, fish and beneficial insects.  Hazardous to
      honey bees.  Biological magnification unlikely.  Phytotoxic to American
      linden, Hawthorne rose and sugar maple (1).
           Oxidation to the sulphoxide and sulphone, both highly insecticidal,
      proceeds in plants (62).
           Don't apply for mosquito control in areas containing fish, shrimp,
      crabs, or cray fish (8a).
           LC50 (96-hr) for carp 2.5-3.3 mg/l; LC50 (48-hr) for goldfish 1.9
      mg/l (62).

      Approximate Residual Period:  4-6 weeks (1).


                      V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES

           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.

           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.

      FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING BY ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES

           Symptoms of acute poisoning develop during exposure or within 12
      hours (usually within four hours) of contact.  HEADACHE, DIZZINESS,
      WEAKNESS, INCOORDINATION, MUSCLE TWITCHING, TREMOR, NAUSEA, ABDOMINAL
      CRAMPS, DIARRHEA, and SWEATING are common early symptoms.  Blurred or
      dark vision, confusion, tightness in the chest, wheezing, productive
      cough, and PULMONARY EDEMA may occur.  Incontinence, unconsciousness
      and convulsions indicate very severe poisoning.  SLOW HEARTBEAT,
      salivation, and tearing are common.  TOXIC PSYCHOSIS, with manic or
      bizarre behavior, has led to misdiagnosis of acute alcoholism.  Slowing
      of the heartbeat may rarely progress to complete sinus arrest.
      RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION may be fatal.  Continuing daily absorption of
      organophosphate at intermediate dosage may cause an INFLUENZA-LIKE
      ILLNESS characterized by weakness, anorexia, and malaise (25).

           SKIN CONTACT:  Bathe and shampoo victim with soap and water if
      there is any chance that skin and hair are contaminated (25).

           INGESTION:  If victim is alert and respiration is not depressed,
      give Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of water to induce
      vomiting.  Adults (12 years and over): 30 ml; children under 12 years: 15
      ml (25).

           INHALATION:  If inhaled, remove to fresh air.  If not breathing,
      give artificial respiration, preferably mouth to mouth.  Get medical
      attention (38a).

           EYE CONTACT:  If eyes are contaminated, wash with plenty of water
      for at least 15 minutes (38a).

      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:

      Administer ATROPINE SULFATE intravenously, or intramuscularly, if IV
      injection is not possible.
      In MODERATELY SEVERE poisoning:  Adult dosage:  0.4-2.0 mg repeated
      every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved:  tachycardia (pulse
      of 140 per minute), flushing, dry mouth, dilated pupils.  Maintain
      atropinization by repeated doses for 2-12 hours or longer depending on
      severity of poisoning.
      Dosage for children under 12 years:  0.05 mg/kg body weight, repeated
      every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved.  Maintain
      atropinization with repeated dosage of 0.02-0.05 mg/kg.
      SEVERELY POISONED individuals may exhibit remarkable tolerance to
      atropine; two or more times the dosages suggested above may be needed.
      Administer PRALIDOXIME (Protopam (TM)-Ayerst, 2-PAM) in cases of severe
      poisoning in which respiratory depression, muscle weakness and
      twitchings are severe.
      Adult dosage:  1.0 gm intravenously at no more than 0.5 gm per minute.
      Child's dose (under 12 years):  20-50 mg/kg (depending on severity of
      poisoning) intravenously, injecting no more than half the total dose
      per minute.
      Dosage of pralidoxime may be repeated in 1-2 hours, then at 10-12 hour
      intervals if needed.  In very severe poisonings, dosage rates may be
      doubled (25).


                          VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION

           To be developed.


                                 VII.  COMPATIBILITY

           Believed compatible with most insecticides and fungicides except
      highly alkaline materials (1).


                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES

      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Store in a cool, dry area.  Store the liquid
      formulations away from excessive heat and open flame.  Store in an area
      designated specifically for pesticides.  Do not store near any material
      intended for use or consumption by humans or animals (38a).


                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS

                      IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                   (800) 424-9300
                       PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC


                               X.  LITERATURE CITED

       1.  Harding, W.C.  1979.  Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
               and miticides.  Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
               30 pp.

       8a. Thomson, W. T.  1976.  Agricultural chemicals - book 1:
               insecticides, acaricides, and ovicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson
               Publ., Indianapolis, IN.  232 pp.

      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.

      38a. Mobay Chemical Corporation, Agricultural Chemicals Division.
               1981.  Technical information:  Baytex insecticide.
               Kansas City, MO.

      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.

      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.

      4/17/85