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Lindane (Isotox) - Chemical Profile 4/85


      CHEMICAL name:      Gamma isomer of 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro cyclohexane


      TRADE name(S):      Exagama, Forlin, Gallogama, Gamaphex, Gammex, Isotox,
                          Lindafor, Lindagam, Lindagrain, Lindagranox, Lindalo,
                          Lindamul, Lindapoudre, Lindaterra, Novigam, Silvanol

      FORMULATION(S):     Emulsifiable concentrates, flowables, wettable
                          powders, oil-base sprays, granules, dusts, aerosols,
                          smoke generator (56).

      TYPE:               Organochlorine insecticide

      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Rhone-Poulenc Agrochimie
                          14-20 rue Pierre Baizet
                          Lyon 69009 France

      STATUS:  Restricted use.  RPAR; criteria possibly met or exceeded:
      oncogenicity, teratogenicity, reproductive effects, acute toxicity, other
      chronic effects.  PD1 published 2/18/77; comment period closed 6/20/77.
      PD 2/3 completed and Notice of Determination published 7/3/80; comment
      period closed 9/15/80.  PD4 being developed (22).

      PRINCIPAL USES:  Insects on ornamentals and trees (especially
      borers), seed treatments, livestock pests; possesses significant
      vapor toxicity.  Cancelled for use in vaporizers (1974) (1).
           For many uses of which seed treatments are prominent (soil
      treatment, foliage application on fruit and nut trees, vegetables,
      ornamentals, timber, and wood protection).  Possesses more vapor
      toxicity than most of the organochlorine insecticides.  Also for
      protection of tobacco transplants from cutworms and wireworms (56).

                                   I.  EFFICACY

      Important Pests Controlled:  Aphids, lygus bugs, grasshoppers, spittle-
      bugs, thrips, plum curculio, fleabeetles, ants, leafminers, cockroaches,
      armyworms, wireworms, Diabrotica, flies, mosquitoes, boll weevils, mange
      mites, termites and many others (8a).

                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C6 H6 Cl6 (62)

      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   290.8 (62)

      PHYSICAL STATE:     Colorless crystals (pure compound) (62)

      ODOR:               Essentially odorless (56)

      MELTING POINT:      112 C (pure compound) (62)

      VAPOR PRESSURE:     5.6 mPa at 20 C (pure compound) (62)

      SOLUBILITY:         7 mg/l water at 20 C (pure compound) (62)

                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION

      OSHA STANDARD:  0.5 mg/m3 averaged over an eight-hour work shift (14)

      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established

      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 0.5 mg/m3;
                                STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) = 1.5 mg/m3
                                (deleted); skin notation (15c).


           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY

               DERMAL:  LD50 = 900-1000 mg/kg (rat) (62)

                        The dry material applied to the skin of rabbits caused
                        moderate skin irritation (14).

               ORAL:    Acute oral LD50 values vary with the conditions of the
                          test, especially the carrier: for rats 88-270 mg/kg;
                          for mice 59-246 mg/kg (62).

                        LD50 = 88-125 mg/kg (male rat) (56)

               EYES:    Test applications of a 3% dust mixture with talc on
                        the eyes and nasal mucosa of rabbits produced no
                        irritation (14).


           In 2-yr feeding trials NEL was: for rats 25 mg/kg diet; for dogs

      50 mg/kg diet (62).

           The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has
      evaluated the data on this chemical and has concluded that it causes
      cancer (14).
           Repeated feeding to rats of 800 ppm in the diet resulted in mild
      liver damage; kidney damage occurred at higher levels.  Mice fed 400
      ppm in the diet developed liver tumors and, in some cases, lung
      metastases (14).
           Lindane levels in the blood do not appear to increase with
      increased duration of exposure but primarily reflect recent lindane
      absorption; production workers exposed to air levels of 31 to 1800
      ug/m3 had blood levels of 1.9 to 8.3 ppb (14).

                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS

           Some hazard to birds, fish and beneficial insects.  Hazardous to
      honey bees.  Biological magnification difficult.  Injury reported on
      potatoes and walnuts.  Off flavor has resulted in some crops (1).
           Ramade, et al (1974) investigated the influence of lindane in
      concentrations 1, 5, and 10 ppm water of 6 C in different stages of
      development of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).  All concentrations
      caused dose-dependent decrease in hatchability of the eggs and
      disturbed the morphogenesis of the embryo.  The alevins exhibited an
      increasing sensitivity from the point of hatching (mortality about 50%)
      to the stage of resorption of the yolk sac (mortality about 100%).  The
      alevins were much more sensitive to lindane than adult trout.  Some
      major histological changes were noted in the muscle and in the liver
           In tests with 12 mostly American freshwater fish, Macek and
      McAllister (1970) found 96 hour LC50 values between 0.002 and 0.131
      ppm.  The most susceptible species were brown trout and rainbow trout
      with values of 0.002 and 0.027 ppm respectively and the least sensitive
      were carp and goldfish with values of 0.09 and 0.131 ppm.  FWPCA
      (Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, U.S.D.I.) (1963) gave
      a 48 hour LC50 for the rainbow trout of 0.018 ppm (44).
           Lindane is relatively stable in the environment.  It is persistent
      in soils but is biodegradable there under wet anaerobic conditions.  In
      mammals there are mechanisms for metabolism and excretion of this
      pesticide.  Lindane is not cumulative in blood, or rat fat in which it
      is very soluble.  While metabolism of lindane in the human body is
      apparent, in an inert environment this pesticide is extremely
      persistent and disappears essentially only by volatilization.  These
      properties of fat solubility, persistence and ability to vaporize
      continuously lead to lindane's ready penetration into food, into the
      body of chickens and then into the yolk of their eggs, and into exposed
      humans.  These are all examples which underlie the need for concern
      about the health aspects of lindane toxicity (45).

      Approximate Residual Period:  1 to 2 weeks on plant surfaces; 1 year in
      soil, longer in water (1).


           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.

           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.


      WEAKNESS, PARESTHESIAE, muscle twitching, tremor, tonic and clonic
      CONVULSIONS (often epileptiform), and unconsciousness are the major
      manifestations.  Soon after ingestion, nausea and vomiting commonly
      occur.  When chemicals are absorbed dermally, apprehension, twitching,
      tremors, confusion, and convulsions may be the first symptoms.
      Respiratory depression is caused by the pesticide and by the petroleum
      solvents in which these pesticides are usually dissolved.  Pallor occurs
      in moderate to severe poisoning.  Cyanosis may result as convulsive
      activity interferes with respiration (25).

           SKIN CONTACT:  Bathe and shampoo the victim vigorously with soap
      and water if skin and hair have been contaminated (25).

           INGESTION:  If victim is alert and gag reflex is not depressed,
      give Syrup of Ipecac to induce vomiting (adults and children 12 years
      and older: 30 ml; children under 12: 15 ml), followed by 1-2 glasses
      of water (25).

           INHALATION:  Move the exposed person to fresh air at once.  If
      breathing has stopped, perform artificial respiration.  Keep the
      affected person warm and at rest.  Get medical attention as soon as
      possible (14).

           EYE CONTACT:  Wash eyes immediately with large amounts of water,
      lifting the lower and upper lids occasionally.  If irritation is
      present after washing, get medical attention.  Contact lenses should
      not be worn when working with this chemical (14).


      anticonvulsant.  Adult dosage:  5-10 mg (1-2 ml) slowly, intravenously
      (no faster than one ml per minute) or give total dose intramuscularly
      (deep).  Repeat in 2-4 hours if needed.
      Dosage for children under 6 years or 23 kg in weight:  0.1 mg/kg (0.02
      ml/kg) intravenously, no faster than half the total dose per minute, or
      give total dose intramuscularly (deep).  Repeat in 2-4 hours if needed.
      Persons suffering SEVERE PROTRACTED CONVULSIONS may require additional
      anticonvulsant medication.  Agents that have been used successfully in
      the past are pentobarbital (Numbutal (TM)), phenytoin (Dilantin (TM)),
      thiopental (Pentothal (TM)), and succinylcholine (Anectine (TM)).
      If the victim is NOT FULLY ALERT, empty the stomach immediately by
      INTUBATION, ASPIRTION, and LAVAGE, using isotonic saline or 5% sodium
      bicarbonate.  Because many pesticides are dissolved in petroleum
      distillates, emesis and intubation of the stomach involve a serious
      risk that solvent will be aspirated, leading to chemical pneumonitis.
      DO NOT give epinephrine or other adrenergic amines, because of the
      enhanced myocardial irritability induced by chlorinated hydrocarbons

                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION

           Above 177 C (350 F) lindane decomposes to form toxic and
      irritating hydrogen chloride gas (14).
           Toxic gases and vapors (such as phosgene, hydrogen chloride, and
      carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving lindane (14).
           Flammability: not combustible, but may be dissolved in a
      combustible solvent (14).

                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY

           Generally compatible with most materials (1).  Incompatible with
      lime sulfur, lime, and calcium arsenate.  Corrosive to aluminum (8a).

                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES

      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Store in a dry place.  Avoid exposure of product
      to extreme heat, strong alkalis, and powdered metals (56).

      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Employees should be provided with and required to
      use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and
      other protective clothing necessary to prevent skin contact with
      lindane or liquids containing lindane where skin contact may occur.
      Employees should be provided with and required to use dust- and
      splash-proof safety goggles where lindane or liquids containing lindane
      may contact the eyes (14).

      PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT:  Respirators may be used when engineering and
      work practice controls are not technically feasible, when such controls
      are in the process of being installed, or when they fail and need to be
      supplemented.  Respirators may also be used in emergency situations.
      If the use of respirators is necessary, the only respirators permitted
      are those that have been approved by the Mine Safety and Health
      Administration or by the National Institute for Occupational Safety
      and Health (14).

                      IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS

                                 (800) 424-9300

           Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be
      restricted from areas of spills until cleanup has been completed.

           If lindane is spilled, the following steps should be taken:

           1.   Ventilate area of spill.
           2.   Collect spilled material in the most convenient and safe
                manner and deposit in sealed containers for reclamation or for
                disposal in a secured sanitary landfill.  Liquid containing
                lindane should be absorbed in vermiculite, dry sand, earth, or
                a similar material.

           Waste disposal method:

           Lindane may be disposed of in sealed containers in a secured
      sanitary landfill (14).

                               X.  LITERATURE CITED

       1.  Harding, W.C.  1979.  Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
               and miticides.  Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
               30 pp.

       8a. Thomson, W. T.  1976.  Agricultural chemicals - book 1:
               insecticides, acaricides, and ovicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson
               Publ., Indianapolis, IN.  232 pp.

      14.  U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute
               for Occuptational Safety and Health.  1981.  Occupational
               health guidelines for chemical hazards.  F. W. Mackinson, R.
               S. Stricoff, L. J. Partridge, Jr., and A. D. Little, Inc.,
               eds.  DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 81-123.  Washington, DC.

      15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1984.
               TLVs:  threshold limit values for chemical substances and
               physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
               indices with intended changes for 1984-85.  Cincinnati, OH.
               116 pp.

      22.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide
               Programs.  1983.  June 1983 status report on rebuttable
               presumption against registration (RPAR) or special review
               process, registration standards and the data call in
               programs.  Washington, DC.  45 pp.

      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.

      44.  Ulmann, E., ed.  1974.  Lindane:  I.  supplement 1974.  Verlag
               Karl Schillinger, Freiburg, West Germany.

      45.  Lindane Advisory Committee.  1970.  Report, July 2, 1970.
               Washington, DC.

      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.

      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.