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nicotine (Black Leaf 40) Chemical Profile 4/85


      CHEMICAL NAME:     3-(1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidyl)pyridine (56)


      TRADE NAME(S):     Black Leaf 40 (56)

      FORMULATION(S):    Nicotine alkaloid, 95%; nicotine sulfate, 40% (56)

      TYPE:              Alkaloid insecticide

      BASIC PRODUCERS:   Chemical Formulators, Inc.
                         2045 Peachtree Rd., NE, Suite 200
                         Atlanta, GA 30309

      STATUS:            General use

      PRINCIPAL USES:  Sucking insects on plants but now largely replaced
      by organophosphate insecticides.  Formerly used in greenhouses as a
      fumigant and as a paint roost for chicken lice and mites (1).
           Little or no nicotine is now produced in the U.S.  Limited
      supplies are imported from India.  Two basic types of nicotine products
      have been marketed:  the alkaloid and the sulfate.  Nicotine alkaloid
      is relatively volatile and acts both by contact and by fumigant action.
      The sulfate is usually marketed as an aqueous solution containing 40%
      nicotine equivalent.  When added to alkaline water or to soap solution
      the alkaloid is liberated, being then more active than the sulfate alone

                                    I.  EFFICACY

           To be developed.

                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C10 H14 N2 (62)

      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   162.2 (62)

      PHYSICAL STATE:     Colorless liquid which darkens slowly and becomes
                          viscous on exposure to air (pure compound) (62).

      ODOR:               Slight fishy odor when warm (14)

      MELTING POINT:      -80 C (pure compound) (62)

      BOILING POINT:      247 C (pure compound) (62)

      VAPOR PRESSURE:     5.65 Pa at 25 C (pure compound) (62)

      SOLUBILITY:         Miscible with water below 60 C, forming a hydrate,
                          and above 210 C (pure compound) (62).

                           III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION

      OSHA STANDARD:  0.5 mg/m3 averaged over an eight-hour work shift (14).

      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established

      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 0.5 mg/m3;
                                STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) = 1.5 mg/m3
                                (deleted); skin notation (15c).


           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY

               DERMAL:  LD50 = 50 mg/kg (rabbit, single application) (62)

               ORAL:    LD50 = 50-60 mg/kg (rat) (62)


           Nicotine has caused abnormalities in the offspring of laboratory
      animals (14).


           Little hazard to birds, fish and beneficial insects.  Biological
      magnification unlikely (1).

      Approximate Residual Period:  Very short, 1 day on plants; same in
      soil and water (1).


           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.

           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.


           Nicotine preparations, especially those using the free alkaloid,
      are well absorbed across the gut wall, lung, and skin.  Poisoning
      symptoms from excessive doses appear promptly.  They are due to
      transient stimulation, then prolonged depression, of the central
      nervous system, autonomic ganglia, and motor end-plates of skeletal
      muscle.  Central nervous system injury is manifest as headache,
      dizziness, incoordination, tremors, then clonic convulsions leading to
      tonic-extensor convulsions which are often fatal.  In some instances,
      convulsive activity is minimal and death by respiratory arrest occurs
      within a few minutes.  Effects on autonomic ganglia give rise to
      sweating, salivation, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and
      hypertension.  The heart is usually slow, and often arrhythmic.  Block
      of skeletal muscle motor end-plates causes profound weakness, then
      paralysis.  Death may occur from respiratory depression or from shock.
           Nicotine can be measured in blood and urine to confirm poisoning

           SKIN CONTACT:  Immediately flush the contaminated skin with water.
      If liquid nicotine or solutions of nicotine soak through the clothing,
      remove the clothing immediately and flush the skin with water.  Get
      medical attention immediately (14).

           INGESTION:  If the person is conscious, give large quantities of
      water immediately.  After the water has been swallowed, try to get the
      person to vomit by having him touch the back of his throat with his
      finger.  Do not make an unconscious person vomit.  Get medical attention
      immediately (14).

           INHALATION:  Move the exposed person to fresh air at once.  If
      breathing has stopped, perform artificial respiration.  Keep the affected
      person warm and at rest.  Get medical attention as soon as possible (14).

           EYE CONTACT:  Wash eyes immediately with large amounts of water,
      lifting the lower and upper lids occasionally.  Get medical attention
      immediately.  Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this
      chemical (14).


           Promptly wash contaminated skin and flush eyes with water.
      Ingestion of nicotine requires immediate gastric intubation,
      aspiration, and lavage, the latter preferably with 1.5% tannic acid
      solution, of 1:5000 potassium permanganate solution.  Before
      withdrawing the lavage tube, instill 3-4 ounces of activated charcoal
      in a slurry of water.  Diazapam and/or barbiturates may be required to
      control convulsions.  Atropine and phenoxybenzamine (Dibenzaline) may
      help to control the autonomic manifestations.  Positive pressure
      ventilation of the lungs with oxygen may be necessary to sustain life
      when respiration is arrested (25).

                         VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION

      GENERAL:  Toxic gases and vapors (such as oxides of nitrogen and carbon
      monoxide) may be released in a fire involving nicotine (14).

      EXTINGUISHER TYPE:  Alcohol foam, carbon dioxide, dry chemical (14).

                                 VI.  COMPATIBILITY

           Generally compatible with other insecticides and fungicides (1).
      Contact with strong oxidizers may cause fires and explosions.  Contact
      with strong acids may cause violent spattering (14).

                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES

      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Employees should be provided with and required to
      use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (8" minimum), and other
      appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent any possibility of
      skin contact with liquid nicotine (14).
           Employees should be provided with and required to use splash-proof
      safety goggles where there is any possibility of liquid nicotine
      contacting the eyes (14).

      PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT:  Respirators may be used when engineering and
      work practice controls are not technically feasible, when such controls
      are in the process of being installed, or when they fail and need to be
      supplemented.  If the use of respirators is necessary, the only
      respirators permitted are those that have been approved by the Mine
      Safety and Health Administration or by the National Institute for
      Occupational Safety and Health (14).

                         IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS

                        IN CASE OR EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                     (800) 424-9300

           Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be
      restricted from areas of spills or leaks until cleanup has been
           If nicotine is spilled or leaked, the following steps should be

           1.  Ventilate area of spill or leak.
           2.  For small quantities, absorb on paper towels.  Evaporate in a
               safe place (such as a fume hood).  Allow sufficient time for
               evaporating vapors to completely clear the hood ductwork.
               Burn the paper in a suitable location away from combustible
               materials.  Large quantities can be reclaimed or collected and
               atomized in a suitable combustion chamber equipped with an
               appropriate effluent gas cleaning device.

      Waste disposal methods:

           Nicotine may be disposed of:

           1.  By absorbing it in vermiculite, dry sand, earth or a similar
               material and disposing in a secured sanitary landfill.
           2.  By atomizing in a suitable combusion chamber equipped with an
               appropriate effluent gas cleaning device (14).

                               X.  LITERATURE CITED

       1.  Harding, W.C.  1979.  Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
               and miticides.  Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
               30 pp.

      14.  U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute
               for Occuptational Safety and Health.  1981.  Occupational
               health guidelines for chemical hazards.  F. W. Mackinson, R.
               S. Stricoff, L. J. Partridge, Jr., and A. D. Little, Inc.,
               eds.  DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 81-123.  Washington, DC.

      15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1984.
               TLVs:  threshold limit values for chemical substances and
               physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
               indices with intended changes for 1984-85.  Cincinnati, OH.
               116 pp.

      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.

      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.

      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.