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Permethrin (Ambush, Pounce) Chemical Profile 4/85

                                     permethrin

      CHEMICAL name:      3-(phenoxyphenyl) methyl (+,-)-cis, trans-3-(2,2-
                          dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropanecarbox-
                          ylate (approximately 60% trans, 40% cis isomers) (56)

      DEC INGRED. CODE:

      TRADE name(S):      Ambush, Pounce, Ectiban (56)

      FORMULATION(S):     3.2 E.C. and the active ingredient 2 lbs. permethrin
                          per U.S. gallon.  25% wettable powder, Ectiban;
                          5.7% E.C. Ectiban (56).

      TYPE:               Synthetic pyrethroid insecticide

      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  FMC Corp.
                          Agricultural Chemical Group
                          2000 Market St.
                          Philadelphia, PA 19103

                          ICI Americas, Inc.
                          Agricultural Chemicals Division
                          Wilmington, DE 19897

      STATUS:             General use

      PRINCIPAL USES:  Pounce for use in cotton to control beet armyworm
      (California and Arizona only), bollworm, cabbage looper, cotton flea-
      hopper, cotton leafperforator, lygus bugs, pink bollworm, boll weevil,
      tarnished plant bug, and tobacco budworm.  Pounce 3.2 EC has section 24
      (C) labels for chrysanthemums and roses.  Also registered on cotton for
      ultra low volume application in vegetable oil carrier under EUP and 24
      (C) SLNs.
           Ambush, an effective broad-spectrum insecticide which may be applied
      by ground or air.  Registered on cotton to control cotton bollworm,
      tobacco budworm, boll weevil, pink bollworm, cotton leafperforator,
      lygus bugs, cotton fleahopper, and cabbage looper, and labelled for
      control of whitefly and cotton aphid.  Also has been used under
      Emergency Exemptions on celery, lettuce, cabbage, tomatoes, potatoes,
      field and sweet corn, almonds, pumpkins, soybeans, grapes, green beans,
      and chrysanthemums.
           Ectiban refers to the particular formulations for animal health
      use only.  These formulations have been used in several states under a
      24 (C) SLN registration as residual premise treatment for the control of
      flies in poultry houses, dairies, and horse stables (56).

                                   I.  EFFICACY

      Laboratory Tests:

           Ambush has shown a high level of activity (equal to or better than
      that of standard insecticides) against the following agricultural pests:

        Lepidoptera
        ___________

        Agrotis ipsilon                       Black cutworm
        Anticarsia gemmatalis                 Velvet bean caterpillar
        Choristoneura fumiferana              Spruce budworm
        Heliothis zea                         Corn earworm
        Hemerocampa leucostigma               Tussock moth
        Ostrinia nubialis                     European corn borer
        Pieris rapae                          Imported cabbage worm
        Plutella xylostella                   Diamondback moth
        Porthetria dispar                     Gypsy moth
        Spodoptera frugiperda                 Fall armyworm
        Trichoplusia ni                       Cabbage looper
        Hyphantria cunea                      Fall webworm
        Phyllonorycter cratagella             Spotted tentiform leafminer
        Pseudaletia unipuncta                 Armyworm
        Schizura concinia                     Red humped caterpillar
        Pseudoplusia includens                Soybean looper
        Thyridopteryx ephemeraformis          Bagworm

        Coleoptera
        __________

        Hypera postica                        Alfalfa weevil
        Leptinotarsa decemlineata             Colorado potato beetle
        Macrodactylus subspinosus             Rose chafer

        Homoptera
        _________

        Acyrthosiphum pisum                   Pea aphid
        Aphis fabae                           Bean aphid
        Brevicoryne brassicae                 Cabbage aphid
        Therioaphis maculata                  Spotted alfalfa aphid
        Trialeurodes vaporariorum             Greenhouse whitefly

        Diptera
        _______

        Hylema antiqua                        Onion maggot
        Liromyza sativae                      Veg. leafminer

        Thysanoptera
        ____________

        Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis           Greenhouse thrips
        Hercothrips femoralis                 Azalea thrips        (Ref. 20b)

           Most effective against the Lepidoptera species.  Good residual
      activity since sunlight does not break it down rapidly.  Broad spectrum.
      Non-systemic with no fumigant activity (8a).

                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      MOLECULAR FORMULA:   C21 H20 Cl2 O3 (62)

      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:    391.3 (62)

      PHYSICAL STATE:      Yellow-brown to brown liquid, which sometimes
                           tends to crystallize partly at room temperature
                           (technical material) (62).

      ODOR:                Odorless (pure compound); sweet odor (technical
                           product) (20b).

      MELTING POINT:       34-39 C (pure compound) (62)

      VAPOR PRESSURE:      261 mPa at 30 C (technical material) (62)

      SOLUBILITY:          0.2 mg/l water at 30 C (technical material) (62)

                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION

      OSHA STANDARD:  None established

      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established

      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established

      TOXICOLOGY

           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY

               DERMAL:  LD50 = >4000 mg/kg (rat); >2000 mg/kg (rabbit) (56).
                        Mildly irritating (20b)

               ORAL:    LD50 = >4000 mg/kg (technical product) (56)
                        Oral LD50 values of permethrin depend on such factors
                        as: carrier, cis/trans ratio of the sample, the test
                        species, its sex, age and degree of fasting.  Values
                        reported sometimes differ markedly.  Typical values for
                        a cis/trans ratio of c. 40:60 are: for rats 430-4000
                        mg/kg; for mice 540- 2690 mg/kg; for chickens >3000
                        mg/kg (62).

               INHALATION:  LC50 = >23.5 mg/liter of air (rat) (aerosol) (56)

               EYES:    Mildly irritating (20b).

           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:

           In 2-yr feeding trials rats receiving 100 mg/kg diet showed no
      ill-effect (62).  Permethrin is not mutagenic or teratogenic (20b).

                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS

          Some hazard to fish, beneficial insects and honey bees.  Biological
      magnification unlikely.  Nonphytotoxic (1).

          The acute oral LD50 for Japanese quail = >13,500 mg/kg; the LC50 (96
      hr.) for rainbow trout is 9 ug/l (62).

          The results....indicate that permethrin is rapidly degraded in
      soil.  Degradation of the trans isomer occurs more rapidly than with
      the cis isomer.  The results obtained with enrichment and isolated
      cultures, and in soil experiments comparing nonsterile and sodium azide
      treated soils indicate that microbial metabolism is also involved (42).

          Based on results obtained in identifying soil degradation products,
      it is apparent that the major degradation mechanism of permethrin is
      hydrolysis to the dichlorovinyl acid and 3-phenoxy benzyl alcohol
      moieties.  Further metabolism of both products result in the evolution
      of the C-14 label as 14-CO2 (42).

      Approximate Residual Period:  1-2 weeks on plants; weathers much better
      than natural pyrethroids.  Immobile in soil; persistence more or less
      than 6 months (1).

                      V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES

           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.

           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.

      FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF UNDUE EXPOSURE TO PYRETHRUM, PYRETHRINS,
      PYRETHROIDS, AND PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE.

          A STUFFY, RUNNY NOSE and scratchy throat from inhalation of partly
      purified pyrethrum extract is the most common adverse effect of these
      agents.  Asthmatic WHEEZING may be precipitated by exposure of
      predisposed individuals.  Sudden bronchospasm, swelling of oral and
      laryngeal mucous membranes, and shock (anaphylaxis) have been reported
      after pyrethrum inhalation.  Delayed appearance of dyspnea, cough and
      fever, with patchy lung infiltrates on x-ray, suggest hypersensitivity
      pneumonitis.  Nervous irritability, tremors, and ataxia have occurred
      rarely in persons who have had massive inhalation exposure to
      pyrethrins.  Halocarbon propellents in bug-bomb products present a risk
      of CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA and possibly fibrillation if inhaled to excess.
      Hydrocarbons used as solvents in spray products are likely to result in
      COUGH, FEVER, and CHEST PAIN (hydrocarbon pneumonitis) if these liquids
      are inadvertently aspirated (25).

           SKIN CONTACT:  Immediately remove contaminated clothing and flush
                          skin with water (56).

           INGESTION:     Do not induce vomiting.  Call a physician immediately
                          (56).

           EYE CONTACT:   Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at
                          least 15 minutes.  If necessary, see physician (56).

      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:

      If victim is not fully alert, empty stomach immediately by intubation,
      aspiration, and lavage, using isotonic saline or 5% sodium bicarbonate.
      Because many pesticides are dissolved in petroleum distillates, emesis
      and intubation of the stomach involve a risk that solvent will be
      aspirated, leading to chemical pneumonitis.  Do not administer or
      instill milk, cream, or other substances containing vegetable or animal
      fats, which enhance absorption of lipophilic substances, such as
      pyrethrins and pyrethroids.

      Diazepam (Valium) 5-10 mg in adults, 0.1 mg/kg in children, given
      orally or slowly IV, should control nervousness and tremors in rare
      cases having these symptoms after extraordinary exposure to pyrethrins
      and pyrethroids (25).

                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION

           To be developed.

                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY

          Generally compatible (1).

                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES

      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Toxic to fish.  Keep out of lakes, streams or
      ponds.  Do not apply when weather conditions favor drift from treated
      areas.  Do not contaminate water by cleaning of equipment, or disposal
      of wastes near a body of water.  Avoid contact with eyes, skin, or
      clothing.  Avoid breathing vapor or spray mist.  Wash thoroughly after
      handling.  Do not store near food, feed, heat or open flame (56).

                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS

                     IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                  (800) 424-9300
                      PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC

                               X.  LITERATURE CITED

       1.  Harding, W.C.  1979.  Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
               and miticides.  Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
               30 pp.

       8a. Thomson, W. T.  1976.  Agricultural chemicals - book 1:
               insecticides, acaricides, and ovicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson
               Publ., Indianapolis, IN.  232 pp.

      20b. ICI Americas, Inc., Agricultural Chemicals Division.  Technical
               information:  Ambush insecticide.  Goldsboro, NC.

      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.

      42.  Kaufman, D. D. et al.  1977.  Permethrin degradation in soil
               and microbial cultures.  Pages 147-161 in M. Elliott, ed.
               Synthetic pyrethroids.  American Chemical Society,
               Washington, DC.

      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.

      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.

      4/8/85