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petroleum oils (Volck) Chemical Profile 4/85

                                   petroleum oils

      TRADE NAME(S):      Volck oils (56)

      FORMULATION(S):     Some formulations are applied directly to sites but
                          usually oils are formulated with emulsifiers which
                          permit them to be diluted with water (1).

      TYPE:               Insecticide-miticide, also used as herbicides and

      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Chevron Chemical Co.
                          Ortho Agricultural Chemicals Div.
                          575 Market St.
                          P.O. Box 3744
                          San Francisco, CA 94105

                          Exxon Co., U.S.A.
                          P.O. Box 2180
                          Houston, TX 77001

                          FMC Corp.
                          Agricultural Chemical Group
                          2000 Market St.
                          Philadelphia, PA 19103

      STATUS:             General use

      PRINCIPLE USES:  Petroleum oils are used as (1) dormant sprays to
      control scale insects, aphid eggs, spider mite eggs; (2) summer oils
      against aphids, mites, and scale crawlers; (3) parasiticides for
      application to livestock; (4) carriers for other pesticides; (5)
      herbicides by themselves; (6) adjuvants to increase efficacy of
      fungicides , particularly benomyl (56).

                                   I.  EFFICACY

      Important Pests Controlled:

           1. Dormant oils - Scale, aphids, pear psylla, mites, leafrollers,
              mealybugs, and others, as well as the eggs of many species.

           2. Summer oils - Scale, mites, mealybugs, whitefly, aphids, pear
              psylla and others, as well as the eggs of many species (8a).

           Considered of rather low toxicity to insects.  However, no
      resistance to oils has developed (8a).

                              II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

          Prepared by the distillation and refinement of crude mineral oils,
      those used as pesticides generally distill >310 C.  They may be
      classified by the proportion distilling at 335 C, namely:  'light'
      (67-79%), 'medium' (40-49%), and 'heavy' (10-25%).  Viscosity and
      density vary according to the geographical area from which the crude oils
      came; density rarely exceeds 0.92 g/cm3 at 15.5 C (62).

                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION

      OSHA STANDARD:  None established

      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established

      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established


           No toxicological problem due to petroleum oils has been reported in
      practice (62).

                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS

           Little or no hazard to birds and beneficial insects.  Some hazard
      to fish and honey bees.  Check label for information on phytotoxicity
           Tests have shown there is no risk of polynuclear aromatic compounds
      entering the food chain (62).

      Approximate Residual Period:  Relatively short (1).


           No toxicological problem due to petroleum oils has been reported in
      practice (62).

                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION

           To be developed.

                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY

           Varies with degree of refinement and other factors.  Some oils are
      carriers for other pesticides (1).
           Sulfur sprays shouldn't follow an oil spray for two to three weeks.
      Injury to rubber hose and rubber parts of spray equipment may result

                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES

           To be developed.

                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS

                                  (800) 424-9300

                               X.  LITERATURE CITED

       1.  Harding, W.C.  1979.  Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
               and miticides.  Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
               30 pp.

       8a. Thomson, W. T.  1976.  Agricultural chemicals - book 1:
               insecticides, acaricides, and ovicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson
               Publ., Indianapolis, IN.  232 pp.

      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.

      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.