Propoxur - Chemical Profile 3/85
CHEMICAL NAME: 2-(1-methylethoxy) phenol methylcarbamate (56)
DEC INGRED. CODE:
TRADE NAME(S): Baygon (56)
FORMULATION(S): Emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder, bait,
and dust (56).
TYPE: Carbamate insecticide
BASIC PRODUCER(S): Mobay Chemical Corp.
Agricultural Chemicals Div.
P.O. Box 4913
Kansas City, MO 64120
STATUS: General use
PRINCIPAL USES: Particularly effective against insects affecting
man and animals such as cockroaches, flies, and mosquitoes where rapid
knockdown and residual properties are important. Also effective for
control of lawn and turf insects (56).
Housefly: LD50 = 25 ug/g
Western corn rootworm: LD50 = 10 ug/g (10).
Important Pests Controlled: Earwigs, crickets, chinch bugs, cockroaches,
ants, grasshoppers, aphids, leafhoppers, flies, fleas, thrips, mites,
mosquitoes, spiders, ticks and many others (8a).
Very effective against most public health pests. Fast knockdown
with long residual activity. This compound has shown systemic activity
when applied to the soil (8a).
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C11 H15 NO3 (62)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 209.2 (62)
PHYSICAL STATE: Colorless crystalline solid (pure compound) (62)
Technical purity: minimum 95% (56)
ODOR: Faint characteristic odor (pure compound) (62)
MELTING POINT: 84-87 C (pure compound) (62)
VAPOR PRESSURE: 1.3 Pa at 120 C (pure compound) (62)
SOLUBILITY: 2 g/l water at 20 C (pure compound) (62)
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: None established
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: None established
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 0.5 mg/m3;
STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) = 2 mg/m3
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
DERMAL: LD50 = 800-1000 mg/kg (male rat) (62)
LD50 = >500 mg/kg (male rabbit, technical); >5000
mg/kg (male rat, technical) (56).
ORAL: LD50 = 100-200 mg/kg (male rat, technical); 70-130
mg/kg (female rat, technical) (56).
LD50 = 90-128 mg/kg (rat); 100-109 mg/kg (male
mouse); 40 mg/kg (male guinea-pig) (62).
INHALATION: LC50 = 210 ug/l (female rat) (5a)
B. SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
In 2-yr feeding trials male and female rats receiving 250 mg
a.i./kg diet showed no ill effect; at 750 mg/kg diet the liver weight of
female rats increased, otherwise there was no ill-effect (62).
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Some hazard to birds, fish, and beneficial insects. Hazardous to
honey bees. Biological magnification unlikely. Some injury reported
on chrysanthemums, carnations and hydrangeas at higher rates (1).
LD50 (acute oral) is: for red-winged blackbirds, 2-6 mg/kg;
for starlings, 15-20 mg/kg (62).
Propoxur is highly toxic to honey bees (62).
LD50 = >1.0 ug/insect for honey bee. LC50 = 0.029 ppm for
Daphnia; 0.354 ppm for mosquito larvae (10).
Species LD50 (mg/kg)
House sparrow 13 (Ref. 10)
Approximate Residual Period: Up to 1 month on plant surfaces; several
months on unexposed surfaces. Breakdown in soil and water accelerated
by alkalinity (1).
Birds feeding on treated areas may be killed. Toxic to fish. Do
not apply to tidal marshes or estuaries (8a).
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed
from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan,
which have been footnoted. This information has been provided in
this form for your convenience and general guidance only. In
specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
and is recommended. This information is not intended as a sub-
stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING BY CARBAMATE PESTICIDES
DIARRHEA, NAUSEA, VOMITING, ABDOMINAL PAIN, PROFUSE SWEATING,
SALIVATION, and BLURRED VISION are frequently reported. Other common
symptoms have been dyspnea, tremor, muscle twitching, ataxia, and
headache. Temporary paralysis of the extremities has also occurred.
Most reported illnesses have not exceeded a few hours, and the
prognosis is generally better than in orgnophosphate intoxications.
However, in severe poisonings, one should anticipate the possibility of
RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION, pulmonary edema, and convulsions. Continuing
absorption of intermediate quantities may cause protracted MALAISE,
weakness, and anorexia, resembling influenza (25).
SKIN CONTACT: Bathe and shampoo victim with soap and water if
there is any chance that skin and hair are contaminated (25).
INGESTION: If victim is alert and respiration is not
depressed, give Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of water to
induce vomiting; adults (including children over 12), 30 ml; children,
15 ml (25).
EYE CONTACT: Wash with flowing water for at least 15 minutes (5a).
NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
Administer ATROPINE SULFATE intravenously, or intramuscularly if IV
injection is not possible.
In MODERATELY SEVERE poisoning: Adult dosage: 0.4-2.0 mg repeated
every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved (tachycardia,
flushing, dry mouth, mydriasis). Maintain atropinization by repeated
doses for 2-12 hours, or longer, depending on severity of poisoning.
Dosage for children under 12 years: 0.05 mg/kg body weight repeated
every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved. Maintain
atropinization with repeated dosage of 0.02-0.05 mg/kg.
SEVERELY POISONED individuals may exhibit remarkable tolerance to
atropine; twice the doses suggested above may be needed.
Pralidoxime (Protopam (TM)-Ayerst, 2-PAM) is of doubtful value in
poisonings by carbamate inhibitors of cholinesterase. Atropine alone
is almost always an adequate antidote (25).
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
To be developed.
Generally compatible with other insecticides and fungicides but
broken down by alkaline materials (1).
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
STORAGE AND HANDLING: Store in dry conditions at ambient or lower
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
X. LITERATURE CITED
1. Harding, W.C. 1979. Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
and miticides. Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
5a. Chemagro Corporation. 1971. Baygon insecticide. Kansas City,
8a. Thomson, W. T. 1976. Agricultural chemicals - book 1:
insecticides, acaricides, and ovicides. Revised ed. Thomson
Publ., Indianapolis, IN. 232 pp.
10. Kuhr, R. J. and H. W. Dorough. 1976. Carbamate insecticides:
chemistry, biochemistry, and toxicology. CRC Press, Inc.,
Cleveland, OH. 301 pp.
15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1984.
TLVs: threshold limit values for chemical substances and
physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
indices with intended changes for 1984-85. Cincinnati, OH.
25. Morgan, D.P. 1982. Recognition and management of pesticide
poisonings, 3rd ed. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC. 120 pp.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
62. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 7th ed. 1983. C.R.
Worthing, ed. The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
England. 695 pp.