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ronnel (Ectoral, Korlan) Chemical Profile 4/85


      CHEMICAL NAME:      O,O-Dimethyl O-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)-phosphoro-
                          thioate (56)


      TRADE NAME(S):      Ectoral, Etrolene, Nankor, Korlan, Trolene,
                          Viozene (56)

      FORMULATION(S):     Emulsifiable concentrates, granules, smears,
                          aerosols.  Also combined with DDVP, drug grade for
                          oral use (1).

      TYPE:               Organophosphate insecticide

      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  The Dow Chemical Company
                          P.O. Box 1706
                          Midland, MI 48640

      STATUS:             General use. RPAR:  No action pending 2,4,5-T
                          hearing settlement (22).  Product discontinued by
                          the Dow Chemical Co (56).

      PRINCIPAL USES:  Contact and systemic action controls flies and
      cockroaches as a residual treatment.  Oral administration to livestock
      controls cattle grub, lice, horn fly, face fly, screwworm, ticks, sheep
      ked, and wool maggot (6).

                                   I.  EFFICACY

      Important Pests Controlled:  Flies, cattle grubs, lice, screwworms, wool
      maggots, sheep keds, ticks, fleas, bedbugs, roaches, chinch bugs, ants,
      crickets, mosquitoes, silver fish and many others (8a).
           Prevents heel fly grubs emergence in back of animals when applied
      orally (8a).

                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C8 H8 Cl3 O3 P S (26)

      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   321.6 (26)

      PHYSICAL STATE:     Colorless crystalline powder (pure compound) (26)

      MELTING POINT:      40-42 C (pure compound) (26)

      VAPOR PRESSURE:     8 x 10-4 mmHg at 25 C (pure compound) (26)

      SOLUBILITY:         40 mg/l water at room temperature (pure compound)

                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION

      OSHA STANDARD:  15 mg/m3 averaged over an 8-hour work shift (14).

      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established

      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 10 mg/m3 (15c).


           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY

               DERMAL:  LD50 = 2000 mg/kg (rat) (26)
                        LD50 = 1000-2000 mg/kg (rabbit) (56)

               ORAL:    LD50 = 1740 mg/kg (rat) (26)

               EYES:    When a small amount of ronnel powder was placed in
                        the eye of a rabbit, there were slight discomfort and
                        transient conjunctival irritation which subsided within
                        48 hours (14).


           Rats tolerated 15 mg/kg daily for 105 days (26).

           Rats fed ronnel in their diets in concentrations as much as 50
      mg/kg/day for two years did not show any differences from the controls
      in growth rate, food consumption, mortality rate or hematopoiesis
      (15b).  No skin sensitizing potential was found with patch tests on 50
      human subjects (15b).  In animals ronnel has caused liver and kidney
      damage (14).

           In an experiment on humans in which 50 subjects received 3
      applications per week for 3 weeks of gauze saturated with a 10%
      suspension of ronnel in sesame oil, there were no significant effects
      on the skin (14).

                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS

           Non-hazardous to wildlife (26).

      Approximate Residual Period:  1-2 months on unexposed surfaces (1).


           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.

           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.


           Symptoms of acute poisoning develop during exposure or within 12
      hours (usually within four hours) of contact.  HEADACHE, DIZZINESS,
      CRAMPS, DIARRHEA, and SWEATING are common early symptoms.  Blurred or
      dark vision, confusion, tightness in the chest, wheezing, productive
      cough, and PULMONARY EDEMA may occur.  Incontinence, unconsciousness
      and convulsions indicate very severe poisoning.  SLOW HEARTBEAT,
      salivation, and tearing are common.  TOXIC PSYCHOSIS, with manic or
      bizarre behavior, has led to misdiagnosis of acute alcoholism.  Slowing
      of the heartbeat may rarely progress to complete sinus arrest.
      RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION may be fatal.  Continuing daily absorption of
      organophosphate at intermediate dosage may cause an INFLUENZA-LIKE
      ILLNESS characterized by weakness, anorexia, and malaise (25).

           SKIN CONTACT:  Bathe and shampoo victim with soap and water if
      there is any chance that skin and hair are contaminated (25).

           INGESTION:  If victim is alert and respiration is not
      depressed, give Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of water to
      induce vomiting.  Adults (12 years and over):  30 ml; children:  15 ml

           INHALATION:  If a person breathes in large amounts of ronnel,
      move the exposed person to fresh air at once.  If breathing has
      stopped, perform artificial respiration.  Keep the affected person warm
      and at rest.  Get medical attention as soon as possible (14).

           EYE CONTACT:  Wash eyes immediately with large amounts of water,
      lifting the lower and upper lids occasionally.  If irritation is
      present after washing, get medical attention.  Contact lenses should
      not be worn when working with this chemical (14).


      Administer ATROPINE SULFATE intravenously, or intramuscularly, if IV
      injection is not possible.
      In MODERATELY SEVERE poisoning:  Adult dosage:  0.4-2.0 mg repeated
      every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved:  tachycardia (pulse
      of 140 per minute), flushing, dry mouth, dilated pupils.  Maintain
      atropinization by repeated doses for 2-12 hours or longer depending on
      severity of poisoning.
      Dosage for children under 12 years:  0.05 mg/kg body weight, repeated
      every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved.  Maintain
      atropinization with repeated dosage of 0.02-0.05 mg/kg.
      SEVERELY POISONED individuals may exhibit remarkable tolerance to
      atropine; two or more times the dosages suggested above may be needed.
      Administer PRALIDOXIME (Protopam (TM)-Ayerst, 2-PAM) in cases of severe
      poisoning in which respiratory depression, muscle weakness and
      twitchings are severe.
      Adult dosage:  1.0 gm intravenously at no more than 0.5 gm per minute.
      Child's dose (under 12 years):  20-50 mg/kg (depending on severity of
      poisoning) intravenously, injecting no more than half the total dose
      per minute.
      Dosage of pralidoxime may be repeated in 1-2 hours, then at 10-12 hour
      intervals if needed.  In very severe poisonings, dosage rates may be
      doubled (25).

                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION

           Temperatures above 150 C (300 F) may cause explosive
      decomposition and formation of toxic gases.  Contact with strong
      oxidizers may cause fires and explosions.  Toxic gases and vapors (such
      as sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, trichlorophenol, etc., and carbon
      monoxide) may be released when ronnel decomposes (14).

                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY

           Usually not mixed with other pesticides (1).  Incompatible with
      alkaline materials (8a).

                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES

      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Employees should be provided with and required
      to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (8" minimum), and
      other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent repeated or
      prolonged skin contact with ronnel.  Employees should be provided
      with and required to use dust and splash-proof safety goggles where
      ronnel or liquids containing ronnel may contact the eyes (14).

      PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT:  Respirators may be used when engineering and
      work practice controls are not technically feasible, when such controls
      are in the process of being installed, etc.  The only respirators
      permitted are those that have been approved by the Mine Safety and
      Health Administration or by NIOSH (14).

                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS

                                  (800) 424-9300

           Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be
      restricted from areas of spills until cleanup has been completed.

      If ronnel is spilled, the following steps should be taken:

      1.   Ventilate area of spill.
      2.   Collect spilled material in the most convenient and safe manner
           and deposit in sealed containers for reclamation, or for disposal
           in a sanitary landfill.  Molten ronnel should be absorbed in
           vermiculite, dry sand, earth, or a similar material.

      Waste disposal method:

           Ronnel may be disposed of in sealed containers in a secured
      sanitary landfill (14).

                               X.  LITERATURE CITED

       1.  Harding, W.C.  1979.  Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
               and miticides.  Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
               30 pp.

       6.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 66th ed.  1980.  G. L. Berg, C. Sine,
               S. Meister, and H. Shephard, eds.  Meister Publ. Co.,
               Willoughby, OH.

       8a. Thomson, W. T.  1976.  Agricultural chemicals - book 1:
               insecticides, acaricides, and ovicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson
               Publ., Indianapolis, IN.  232 pp.

      14.  U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute
               for Occuptational Safety and Health.  1981.  Occupational
               health guidelines for chemical hazards.  F. W. Mackinson, R.
               S. Stricoff, L. J. Partridge, Jr., and A. D. Little, Inc.,
               eds.  DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 81-123.  Washington, DC.

      15b. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1971.
               Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in
               workroom air with supplements for those substances added or
               changed since 1971, 3rd ed., 4th printing (1977).  Cincinnati,
               OH.  484 pp.

      15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1984.
               TLVs:  threshold limit values for chemical substances and
               physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
               indices with intended changes for 1984-85.  Cincinnati, OH.
               116 pp.

      22.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide
               Programs.  1983.  June 1983 status report on rebuttable
               presumption against registration (RPAR) or special review
               process, registration standards and the data call in
               programs.  Washington, DC.  45 pp.

      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.

      26.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 6th ed.  1979.  C. R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  655 pp.

      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.