ronnel (Ectoral, Korlan) Chemical Profile 4/85
CHEMICAL NAME: O,O-Dimethyl O-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)-phosphoro-
DEC INGRED. CODE:
TRADE NAME(S): Ectoral, Etrolene, Nankor, Korlan, Trolene,
FORMULATION(S): Emulsifiable concentrates, granules, smears,
aerosols. Also combined with DDVP, drug grade for
oral use (1).
TYPE: Organophosphate insecticide
BASIC PRODUCER(S): The Dow Chemical Company
P.O. Box 1706
Midland, MI 48640
STATUS: General use. RPAR: No action pending 2,4,5-T
hearing settlement (22). Product discontinued by
the Dow Chemical Co (56).
PRINCIPAL USES: Contact and systemic action controls flies and
cockroaches as a residual treatment. Oral administration to livestock
controls cattle grub, lice, horn fly, face fly, screwworm, ticks, sheep
ked, and wool maggot (6).
Important Pests Controlled: Flies, cattle grubs, lice, screwworms, wool
maggots, sheep keds, ticks, fleas, bedbugs, roaches, chinch bugs, ants,
crickets, mosquitoes, silver fish and many others (8a).
Prevents heel fly grubs emergence in back of animals when applied
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C8 H8 Cl3 O3 P S (26)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 321.6 (26)
PHYSICAL STATE: Colorless crystalline powder (pure compound) (26)
MELTING POINT: 40-42 C (pure compound) (26)
VAPOR PRESSURE: 8 x 10-4 mmHg at 25 C (pure compound) (26)
SOLUBILITY: 40 mg/l water at room temperature (pure compound)
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: 15 mg/m3 averaged over an 8-hour work shift (14).
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: None established
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 10 mg/m3 (15c).
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
DERMAL: LD50 = 2000 mg/kg (rat) (26)
LD50 = 1000-2000 mg/kg (rabbit) (56)
ORAL: LD50 = 1740 mg/kg (rat) (26)
EYES: When a small amount of ronnel powder was placed in
the eye of a rabbit, there were slight discomfort and
transient conjunctival irritation which subsided within
48 hours (14).
B. SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
Rats tolerated 15 mg/kg daily for 105 days (26).
Rats fed ronnel in their diets in concentrations as much as 50
mg/kg/day for two years did not show any differences from the controls
in growth rate, food consumption, mortality rate or hematopoiesis
(15b). No skin sensitizing potential was found with patch tests on 50
human subjects (15b). In animals ronnel has caused liver and kidney
In an experiment on humans in which 50 subjects received 3
applications per week for 3 weeks of gauze saturated with a 10%
suspension of ronnel in sesame oil, there were no significant effects
on the skin (14).
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Non-hazardous to wildlife (26).
Approximate Residual Period: 1-2 months on unexposed surfaces (1).
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed
from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan,
which have been footnoted. This information has been provided in
this form for your convenience and general guidance only. In
specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
and is recommended. This information is not intended as a sub-
stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING BY ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES
Symptoms of acute poisoning develop during exposure or within 12
hours (usually within four hours) of contact. HEADACHE, DIZZINESS,
WEAKNESS, INCOORDINATION, MUSCLE TWITCHING, TREMOR, NAUSEA, ABDOMINAL
CRAMPS, DIARRHEA, and SWEATING are common early symptoms. Blurred or
dark vision, confusion, tightness in the chest, wheezing, productive
cough, and PULMONARY EDEMA may occur. Incontinence, unconsciousness
and convulsions indicate very severe poisoning. SLOW HEARTBEAT,
salivation, and tearing are common. TOXIC PSYCHOSIS, with manic or
bizarre behavior, has led to misdiagnosis of acute alcoholism. Slowing
of the heartbeat may rarely progress to complete sinus arrest.
RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION may be fatal. Continuing daily absorption of
organophosphate at intermediate dosage may cause an INFLUENZA-LIKE
ILLNESS characterized by weakness, anorexia, and malaise (25).
SKIN CONTACT: Bathe and shampoo victim with soap and water if
there is any chance that skin and hair are contaminated (25).
INGESTION: If victim is alert and respiration is not
depressed, give Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of water to
induce vomiting. Adults (12 years and over): 30 ml; children: 15 ml
INHALATION: If a person breathes in large amounts of ronnel,
move the exposed person to fresh air at once. If breathing has
stopped, perform artificial respiration. Keep the affected person warm
and at rest. Get medical attention as soon as possible (14).
EYE CONTACT: Wash eyes immediately with large amounts of water,
lifting the lower and upper lids occasionally. If irritation is
present after washing, get medical attention. Contact lenses should
not be worn when working with this chemical (14).
NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
Administer ATROPINE SULFATE intravenously, or intramuscularly, if IV
injection is not possible.
In MODERATELY SEVERE poisoning: Adult dosage: 0.4-2.0 mg repeated
every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved: tachycardia (pulse
of 140 per minute), flushing, dry mouth, dilated pupils. Maintain
atropinization by repeated doses for 2-12 hours or longer depending on
severity of poisoning.
Dosage for children under 12 years: 0.05 mg/kg body weight, repeated
every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved. Maintain
atropinization with repeated dosage of 0.02-0.05 mg/kg.
SEVERELY POISONED individuals may exhibit remarkable tolerance to
atropine; two or more times the dosages suggested above may be needed.
Administer PRALIDOXIME (Protopam (TM)-Ayerst, 2-PAM) in cases of severe
poisoning in which respiratory depression, muscle weakness and
twitchings are severe.
Adult dosage: 1.0 gm intravenously at no more than 0.5 gm per minute.
Child's dose (under 12 years): 20-50 mg/kg (depending on severity of
poisoning) intravenously, injecting no more than half the total dose
Dosage of pralidoxime may be repeated in 1-2 hours, then at 10-12 hour
intervals if needed. In very severe poisonings, dosage rates may be
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
Temperatures above 150 C (300 F) may cause explosive
decomposition and formation of toxic gases. Contact with strong
oxidizers may cause fires and explosions. Toxic gases and vapors (such
as sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, trichlorophenol, etc., and carbon
monoxide) may be released when ronnel decomposes (14).
Usually not mixed with other pesticides (1). Incompatible with
alkaline materials (8a).
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Employees should be provided with and required
to use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (8" minimum), and
other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent repeated or
prolonged skin contact with ronnel. Employees should be provided
with and required to use dust and splash-proof safety goggles where
ronnel or liquids containing ronnel may contact the eyes (14).
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT: Respirators may be used when engineering and
work practice controls are not technically feasible, when such controls
are in the process of being installed, etc. The only respirators
permitted are those that have been approved by the Mine Safety and
Health Administration or by NIOSH (14).
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be
restricted from areas of spills until cleanup has been completed.
If ronnel is spilled, the following steps should be taken:
1. Ventilate area of spill.
2. Collect spilled material in the most convenient and safe manner
and deposit in sealed containers for reclamation, or for disposal
in a sanitary landfill. Molten ronnel should be absorbed in
vermiculite, dry sand, earth, or a similar material.
Waste disposal method:
Ronnel may be disposed of in sealed containers in a secured
sanitary landfill (14).
X. LITERATURE CITED
1. Harding, W.C. 1979. Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
and miticides. Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
6. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 66th ed. 1980. G. L. Berg, C. Sine,
S. Meister, and H. Shephard, eds. Meister Publ. Co.,
8a. Thomson, W. T. 1976. Agricultural chemicals - book 1:
insecticides, acaricides, and ovicides. Revised ed. Thomson
Publ., Indianapolis, IN. 232 pp.
14. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute
for Occuptational Safety and Health. 1981. Occupational
health guidelines for chemical hazards. F. W. Mackinson, R.
S. Stricoff, L. J. Partridge, Jr., and A. D. Little, Inc.,
eds. DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 81-123. Washington, DC.
15b. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1971.
Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in
workroom air with supplements for those substances added or
changed since 1971, 3rd ed., 4th printing (1977). Cincinnati,
OH. 484 pp.
15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1984.
TLVs: threshold limit values for chemical substances and
physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
indices with intended changes for 1984-85. Cincinnati, OH.
22. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide
Programs. 1983. June 1983 status report on rebuttable
presumption against registration (RPAR) or special review
process, registration standards and the data call in
programs. Washington, DC. 45 pp.
25. Morgan, D.P. 1982. Recognition and management of pesticide
poisonings, 3rd ed. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC. 120 pp.
26. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 6th ed. 1979. C. R.
Worthing, ed. The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
England. 655 pp.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.