sulfotepp (Bladafum,Plantfum) EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet 9/88
EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet
Name of Chemical: Sulfotepp
Reason for Issuance: Registration Standard
Date Issued: Sept. 30, 1988
Fact Sheet Number: 185
1. DESCRIPTION OF CHEMICAL
- Chemical Name: O,O,O',O'-tetraethyl dithiopyrophosphate
(International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry)
- ANSI Common Name: Not applicable
- Other Common Names: Sulfotep (British Standards Institution and
International Organization for Standardization); tetraethyl
thiodiphosphate (9th Collective Index); tetraethyl thiopyrophosphate
(8th Collective Index); thiodiphosphoric acid tetraethyl ester;
sulfotepp (Entomological Society of America)
- Principal Trade Names: Bladafume; Dithio; Dithione, Plantfume
- EPA Pesticide Chemical (Shaughnessy) Number: 079501
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Number: 3689-24-5
- Year of Initial Registration: 1951
- Pesticide Type(s): Insecticide/acaricide
- Chemical Family: Organophosphate
- U.S. Registrants: Centerchem, Inc.; Fuller Systems, Inc.; Plant
2. USE PATTERNS AND FORMULATIONS
- Registered uses: Greenhouse ornamentals (non-food crop)
- Predominant uses: Azaleas, carnations, chrysanthemums, geraniums,
- Pests controlled: Aphids, spider mites, whiteflies, mealybugs,
- Types of Formulations: Ready-to-use liquid; impregnated materials
- Types and Method of Application: Fogging with liquid spray, smoking
with impregnated materials
- Application Rates: 1.75 fl. oz. 4.5%/5,000 ft3 (liquid fog); 1.75 oz.
15%/5,000 ft3 (smoke generator)
3. SCIENCE FINDINGS
- Physical state: liquid
- Color: pale yellow
- Odor: Unknown
- Molecular Weight & Formula: 322.3, C8H20O5P2S2
- Boiling Point: 136-139 degrees C at 2 mm Hg
- Vapor Pressure: 1.7 x 10-4 mm Hg or 22.6 mPa at 20 degrees C
- Specific Gravity: 1.196 d25/4 degrees C, where 25 degrees C refers
temperature at which density (d) of sulfotepp measured and 4 degrees C
temperature at which density of H20 measured
- Solubility in various solvents: 25 mg/l water at room temperature;
completely miscible with chloromethane and most organic solvents
- Acute Oral: Data gap. An acute oral LD50 study in the rat is
- Acute Dermal: Data gap. An acute dermal LD50 study in the rabbit is
- Acute Inhalation: Data gap. An acute inhalation LC50 study in the
rat is required.
- Primary Dermal Irritation: Data gap. A primary dermal study in the
rabbit is required.
- Primary Eye Irritation: Data gap. A primary eye study in the rabbit
- Dermal Sensitization: Data gap. A study in the guinea pig is
- Delayed Neurotoxicity: Data gap. An acute study in the hen is
- Major Routes of Exposure: Not well understood. Inhalation of fumes
and dermal exposure to treated ornamentals.
- Subchronic Toxicity: Data gaps. A 21-day dermal study in the rabbit
is required. A 90-day inhalation study is required. Note: The 90-day
feeding studies in rodent and non-rodent are not required for the
registered use patterns.
- Oncogenicity: Not required for the registered use patterns.
- Chronic feeding: Not required for the registered use patterns.
- Metabolism: Not required for the registered use patterns.
- Reproduction: Not required for the registered use patterns.
- Teratogenicity: Data gap. A study in either a rodent or non-rodent
- Mutagenicity: Data gaps. The gene mutation (Ames Test) and the
chromosomal aberration studies are required, as is the test for other
mechanisms of mutagenicity.
Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics
- Mechanism of Pesticidal Action: Neurotoxin
- Metabolism and Persistence in Plants and Animals: Metabolism not
understood; short residual period on plant foliage.
- Environmental Characteristics: There are no available environmental
fate studies on sulfotepp. Therefore, groundwater contamination
potential cannot be assessed at this time. Because of toxicological
concerns on the acute hazards (see above), an interim ll-hour minimum
reentry interval and 2 hours of ventilation are being imposed for the
uses of sulfotepp until adequate data have been submitted and
evaluated. The following list summarizes the environmental fate data
requirements for sulfotepp.
- Degradation Studies: Data gaps. Laboratory studies on hydrolysis and
photodegradation in air are required.
- Metabolism Studies: Data gap. A laboratory study on aerobic soil
metabolism is required.
- Mobility Studies: Data gaps. Laboratory studies on adsorption/
desorption (batch equilibrium study preferred) and volatility are
required. A field volatility study is reserved until the results of
laboratory studies are known.
- Reentry Protection: Data gap. An inhalation exposure study is re-
quired. The registrant is required to propose acceptable reentry
labeling based upon airborne residue levels measured after observing
the proposed label conditions, on estimated human exposure to those
residues, and on toxicity of sulfatepp. Because of the highly acutely
toxic nature of sulfotepp, no actual human inhalation exposure
monitoring data should be gathered.
- Ecological Characteristics: No data are available for any terrestrial
species. The available data indicate that sulfotepp is "highly toxic"
to the rainbow trout and bluegill sunfish. No data are available on
effects on freshwater invertebrates. The following list summarizes
the ecological effects data requirements for sulfotepp.
- Avian acute toxicity: Data gap. A single-dose LD50 study in the
bobwhite quail is required.
- Avian dietary toxicity: Data gap. A subacute dietary LC50 study in
the bobwhite quail is required
- Freshwater fish acute toxicity: Rainbow trout: LC50 = 1.0 (0.8-1.3)
ppm; bluegill sunfish: LC50 = 0.36 (0.27-0.46) ppm. Available fish
studies only partially fulfill the requirements, but may be upgraded
if additional data concerning the studies are available and are
- Marine fish acute toxicity: Not required for the registered use
- Freshwater invertebrate toxicity: Data gap. An acute LC50 study on
aquatic invertebrates is required.
- Marine invertebrate toxicity: Not required for the registered use
4. TOLERANCE ASSESSMENT
There are no approved tolerances for residues of sulfotepp and no
uses on food crops. Therefore, a tolerance assessment is not required.
5. SUMMARY OF REGULATORY POSITIONS
- Sulfotepp is not a candidate for Special Review at this time.
- Sulfotepp meets the criteria for restricted use classification because
of highly acute inhalation toxicity to humans.
- Groundwater contamination concerns for sulfotepp cannot be assessed
until basic environmental fate data requirements are met.
- An interim reentry interval based on standards proposed in Title 40,
Code of Federal Regulations, Part 170, Subpart F, Special Standards
for Workers in Greenhouses, Section 66, is being imposed for the uses
of sulfotepp pending submission and evaluation of data on exposure to
- Protective clothing requirements are being imposed as labeling
amendments for all registered sulfotepp products.
6. LABELING REQUIREMENTS
Statements applicable to all products:
GENERAL WARNINGS AND LIMITATIONS: Sulfotepp is classified as a
RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE by Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations,
Part 162, Section 31, on the basis of its acute inhalation hazard
Statements for Manufacturing-Use Products:
This pesticide is toxic to fish. Do not discharge effluent
containing this product directly into lakes, streams, ponds,
estuaries, oceans, wetlands or public waters unless this product
is specifically identified and addressed in a NPDES permit.
Do not discharge effluent containing this product to sewer systems
without previously notifying the sewage treatment plant authority.
For guidance, contact your State Water Board or Regional Office of
the Environmental Protection Agency.
Statements for End-Use Products:
General Warnings and Limitations:
Worker Protection Statement: WEAR THE FOLLOWING PROTECTIVE
CLOTHING DURING LOADING, APPLICATION, EQUIPMENT REPAIR, EQUIPMENT
CLEANING, EARLY REENTRY TO TREATED AREAS, AND DISPOSAL OF THE
PESTICIDE. Wear a protective suit of one or two pieces that covers
all parts of the body except the head, hands, and feet. Wear
chemical-resistant gloves and chemical-resistant shoes, shoe
coverings, or boots. Wear goggles and a pesticide respirator
approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH) and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)
at all times during application and early reentry to treated areas.
Reentry Statement: Reentry after applying is restricted until
one of the following intervals has elapsed:
(l) Two hours of ventilation using fans or other mechanical
(2) Four hours of ventilation using vents, windows or other
passive ventilation systems.
(3) Eleven hours with no ventilation, followed by one hour of
(4) Eleven hours with no ventilation, followed by two hours
of passive ventilation.
If necessary to reenter the greenhouse for any reason during the
specified intervals after application, protective clothing described in
the Worker Protection Statement must be worn. All greenhouses must be
posted during the exposure period and until safe to reenter.
Disposal Statement: Pesticide wastes are acutely hazardous.
Improper disposal of excess pesticide, spray mixture or
rinsate is a violation of Federal Law. If these wastes cannot
be disposed of by use according to label instructions, contact
your State Pesticide or Environmental Control Agency or the
Hazardous Waste representative at the nearest EP Regional
office for guidance. In addition, interested parties may call
the RCRA/Superfund Hotline toll free (1-800-424-9346) for
information on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
7. SUMMARY OF DATA GAPS
Toxicology. All the acute toxicity studies are required, including
the acute delayed neurotoxicity study in the hen. The subchronic
feeding studies in the rodent and nonrodent are not required due to lack
of oral exposure in the registered use patterns. The 21-day dermal and
90-day inhalation studies are required. The 90-day neurotoxicity study
is reserved depending upon the results from the acute delayed neuro-
toxicity study. A teratology study in one species is required and all
the mutagenicity studies are required.
Environmental Fate/Exposure. The laboratory degradation studies on
hydrolysis and photodegradation in air are required. The aerobic soil
metabolism study is required. The laboratory mobility studies on
adsorption/desorption (for which the batch equilibrium study is
preferred) and volatility are required. The field volatility study is
reserved pending results from the laboratory studies. The reentry
protection study on inhalation exposure is required, but there is to be
no actual monitoring of human inhalation exposure.
Fish and Wildlife. An avian single-dose acute oral LD50 study and a
subacute dietary LC50 study using the bobwhite quail are required.
Additional data are required on the freshwater fish toxicity study
already submitted. A study on the acute LC50 to aquatic invertebrates
Product Chemistry. All the applicable data on product identity,
analysis and certification of product ingredients, and physical and
chemical properties are required.
8. CONTACT PERSON AT EPA
William H. Miller
Product Manager 16
Registration Division (TS-767C)
Office of Pesticide Programs
Environmental Protection Agency
401 M St., SW
Washington, D.C. 20460
Office location and phone number:
Room 211, Crystal Mall #2
1921 Jefferson Davis Highway
DISCLAIMER: The information in this Pesticide Fact Sheet is a summary
only and may not be used to satisfy data requirements for pesticide
registration and reregistration. The complete Registration Standard for
the pesticide may be obtained from the contact person listed above.