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temephos (Abate) Chemical Profile 4/85


      CHEMICAL NAME:      O,O'-(thiodi-4,1-phenylene) bis(O,O-dimethyl
                          phosphorothioate (56)


      TRADE NAME(S):      Abate, Abathion, Biothion, Lypor (56)

      FORMULATION(S):  Four lbs/gallon EC; also 500 grams (4.15 lbs/gallon);
      50% water-dispersible powder (WDP); 1 SG Insecticide (high-density,
      sand-core granules designed for control of mosquito larvae in dense
      vegetation; , 2 G Insecticide, 5 G Insecticide (low-density granules for
      aquatic insect control in open waters and along shores) (56).

      TYPE:               Organophosphate insecticide

      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  American Cyanamid Co.
                          Agricultural Research Div.
                          P.O. Box 400
                          Princeton, NJ 08540

      STATUS:             General use

      PRINCIPAL USES:     Effective as a mosquito, black fly, and midge
                          larvicide (56).

                                   I.  EFFICACY

      Important Pests Controlled:  Larvae of mosquitoes, midges, citrus thrips,
      gnats, punkies, sandflies and thrips (8a).
           Relatively long residual qualities.  Sometimes mixed with other
      compounds for broader spectrum insect control.  A highly selective
      compound (8a).

                             II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C16 H20 O6 P2 S3 (62)

      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   466.5 (62)

      PHYSICAL STATE:     Colorless crystalline solid (pure compound); brown
                          viscous liquid (technical product, >90% pure) (62).

      MELTING POINT:      30.0-30.5 C (pure compound) (62)

      SOLUBILITY:         Almost insoluble in water (62)

                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION

      OSHA STANDARD:  None established

      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  None established

      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 10 mg/m3;
                                STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) = 20 mg/m3
                                (deleted) (15c).


           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY

               DERMAL:  LD50 (24 hr) = 1300-1930 mg/kg (rabbit); >4000 mg/kg
                          (rat) (62).

               ORAL:    LD50 = 8600 mg/kg (male rat); 13000 mg/kg (female
                          rat) (62).
                        LD50 = 8600 mg/kg (male rat, technical material) (56)

               INHALATION:  Acute inhalation (rat), >25 mg/m3 (56).


           In 2-yr feeding trials rats receiving 300 mg/kg diet showed no
      observable clinical effect.  No toxic symptom was felt by humans
      receiving 256 mg/man for 5 d, or 64 mg/man for 28 d (62).

           All animal species tested tolerated 10 mg/kg without clinical
      effect, and 1 mg/kg without effect on cholinesterase activity (15b).

           Experience in the field for a period of more than one year has
      confirmed that 1 mg/l in drinking water is without effect (15b).

                        IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSIDERATIONS

           Some hazard to fish, birds, and beneficial insects.  Hazardous to
      shrimp and crabs.  Nonphytotoxic (1).

           In 5-d feeding tests the LC50 is:  for mallard ducks 1200 mg/kg
      diet; for ring-necked pheasants 170 mg/kg diet.  LC50 for rainbow trout
      is 31.8 mg/l.  LD50 by topical application to honeybees is 1.55 ug/bee

      Approximate Residual Period:  Not used on plants; short residual in
      soil and water (1).


           The chemical information provided below has been condensed
      from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
      Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan,
      which have been footnoted.  This information has been provided in
      this form for your convenience and general guidance only.  In
      specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
      and is recommended.  This information is not intended as a sub-
      stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
      judgement of a physician or other trained professional.

           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.


           Symptoms of acute poisoning develop during exposure or within 12
      hours (usually within four hours) of contact.  HEADACHE, DIZZINESS,
      CRAMPS, DIARRHEA, and SWEATING are common early symptoms.  Blurred or
      dark vision, confusion, tightness in the chest, wheezing, productive
      cough, and PULMONARY EDEMA may occur.  Incontinence, unconsciousness
      and convulsions indicate very severe poisoning.  SLOW HEARTBEAT,
      salivation, and tearing are common.  TOXIC PSYCHOSIS, with manic or
      bizarre behavior, has led to misdiagnosis of acute alcoholism.  Slowing
      of the heartbeat may rarely progress to complete sinus arrest.
      RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION may be fatal.  Continuing daily absorption of
      organophosphate at intermediate dosage may cause an INFLUENZA-LIKE
      ILLNESS characterized by weakness, anorexia, and malaise (25).

           SKIN CONTACT:  Bathe and shampoo victim with soap and water if
      there is any chance that skin and hair are contaminated (25).

           INGESTION:  If victim is alert and respiration is not depressed,
      give Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of water to induce
      vomiting.  Adults (including children over 12 yrs):  30 ml; children:
      15 ml (25).


      Administer ATROPINE SULFATE intravenously, or intramuscularly, if IV
      injection is not possible.
      In MODERATELY SEVERE poisoning:  Adult dosage:  0.4-2.0 mg repeated
      every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved:  tachycardia (pulse
      of 140 per minute), flushing, dry mouth, dilated pupils.  Maintain
      atropinization by repeated doses for 2-12 hours or longer depending on
      severity of poisoning.
      Dosage for children under 12 years:  0.05 mg/kg body weight, repeated
      every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved.  Maintain
      atropinization with repeated dosage of 0.02-0.05 mg/kg.
      SEVERELY POISONED individuals may exhibit remarkable tolerance to
      atropine; two or more times the dosages suggested above may be needed.
      Administer PRALIDOXIME (Protopam (TM)-Ayerst, 2-PAM) in cases of severe
      poisoning in which respiratory depression, muscle weakness and
      twitchings are severe.
      Adult dosage:  1.0 gm intravenously at no more than 0.5 gm per minute.
      Child's dose (under 12 years):  20-50 mg/kg (depending on severity of
      poisoning) intravenously, injecting no more than half the total dose
      per minute.
      Dosage of pralidoxime may be repeated in 1-2 hours, then at 10-12 hour
      intervals if needed.  In very severe poisonings, dosage rates may be
      doubled (25).

                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION

      GENERAL:  Use self-contained breathing equipment.  Fight fire from
      upwind.  Wash thoroughly after exposure.  Change and wash clothes
      before reuse.  Keep runoff from lakes, streams and ponds.  Metal cans
      could rupture violently under high heat (Abate 4E) (16).  Will evolve
      carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and/or phosphorous
      trioxide (Abate 4E) (16).

      EXTINGUISHER TYPE:  Foam, CO2, dry chemical, fog (for Abate 4E) (16).

                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY

           Not used with other materials (1).

                            VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES

      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Store in cool, dry storage away from heat and
      open flame.  Do not contaminate food, feed or domestic water supplies.
      Keep out of reach of children.  Use only in accordance with label.  Do
      not reuse empty container (Abate 4E) (16).

      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Impervious protective gloves; goggles or face
      shield (Abate 4E) (16).

      PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT:  Wilson Agritox #2 respirator with R21 cartridge
      and R15 filter (Abate 4E) (16).

                       IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS

                                  (800) 424-9300

           Absorb spill with clay, earth, sand, sawdust, then sweep up.  Use
      non-sparking tools.  Use protective clothing, gloves, face shield and
      respirator.  Deposit in approved chemical disposal site (Abate 4E)
           Dry material-vacuum or sweep up for salvage.  Dispose in approved
      chemical disposal site (Abate 5G) (16).

                               X.  LITERATURE CITED

       1.  Harding, W.C.  1979.  Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
               and miticides.  Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
               30 pp.

       8a. Thomson, W. T.  1976.  Agricultural chemicals - book 1:
               insecticides, acaricides, and ovicides.  Revised ed.  Thomson
               Publ., Indianapolis, IN.  232 pp.

      15b. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1971.
               Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in
               workroom air with supplements for those substances added or
               changed since 1971, 3rd ed., 4th printing (1977).  Cincinnati,
               OH.  484 pp.

      15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1984.
               TLVs:  threshold limit values for chemical substances and
               physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
               indices with intended changes for 1984-85.  Cincinnati, OH.
               116 pp.

      16.  Agway, Inc., Chemical Division.  Material safety data sheet.

      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.

      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.

      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.