temephos (Abate) Chemical Profile 4/85
CHEMICAL NAME: O,O'-(thiodi-4,1-phenylene) bis(O,O-dimethyl
DEC INGRED. CODE:
TRADE NAME(S): Abate, Abathion, Biothion, Lypor (56)
FORMULATION(S): Four lbs/gallon EC; also 500 grams (4.15 lbs/gallon);
50% water-dispersible powder (WDP); 1 SG Insecticide (high-density,
sand-core granules designed for control of mosquito larvae in dense
vegetation; , 2 G Insecticide, 5 G Insecticide (low-density granules for
aquatic insect control in open waters and along shores) (56).
TYPE: Organophosphate insecticide
BASIC PRODUCER(S): American Cyanamid Co.
Agricultural Research Div.
P.O. Box 400
Princeton, NJ 08540
STATUS: General use
PRINCIPAL USES: Effective as a mosquito, black fly, and midge
Important Pests Controlled: Larvae of mosquitoes, midges, citrus thrips,
gnats, punkies, sandflies and thrips (8a).
Relatively long residual qualities. Sometimes mixed with other
compounds for broader spectrum insect control. A highly selective
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C16 H20 O6 P2 S3 (62)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 466.5 (62)
PHYSICAL STATE: Colorless crystalline solid (pure compound); brown
viscous liquid (technical product, >90% pure) (62).
MELTING POINT: 30.0-30.5 C (pure compound) (62)
SOLUBILITY: Almost insoluble in water (62)
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: None established
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: None established
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 10 mg/m3;
STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) = 20 mg/m3
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
DERMAL: LD50 (24 hr) = 1300-1930 mg/kg (rabbit); >4000 mg/kg
ORAL: LD50 = 8600 mg/kg (male rat); 13000 mg/kg (female
LD50 = 8600 mg/kg (male rat, technical material) (56)
INHALATION: Acute inhalation (rat), >25 mg/m3 (56).
B. SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
In 2-yr feeding trials rats receiving 300 mg/kg diet showed no
observable clinical effect. No toxic symptom was felt by humans
receiving 256 mg/man for 5 d, or 64 mg/man for 28 d (62).
All animal species tested tolerated 10 mg/kg without clinical
effect, and 1 mg/kg without effect on cholinesterase activity (15b).
Experience in the field for a period of more than one year has
confirmed that 1 mg/l in drinking water is without effect (15b).
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Some hazard to fish, birds, and beneficial insects. Hazardous to
shrimp and crabs. Nonphytotoxic (1).
In 5-d feeding tests the LC50 is: for mallard ducks 1200 mg/kg
diet; for ring-necked pheasants 170 mg/kg diet. LC50 for rainbow trout
is 31.8 mg/l. LD50 by topical application to honeybees is 1.55 ug/bee
Approximate Residual Period: Not used on plants; short residual in
soil and water (1).
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed
from original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and
Management of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan,
which have been footnoted. This information has been provided in
this form for your convenience and general guidance only. In
specific cases, further consultation and reference may be required
and is recommended. This information is not intended as a sub-
stitute for a more exhaustive review of the literature nor for the
judgement of a physician or other trained professional.
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING BY ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES
Symptoms of acute poisoning develop during exposure or within 12
hours (usually within four hours) of contact. HEADACHE, DIZZINESS,
WEAKNESS, INCOORDINATION, MUSCLE TWITCHING, TREMOR, NAUSEA, ABDOMINAL
CRAMPS, DIARRHEA, and SWEATING are common early symptoms. Blurred or
dark vision, confusion, tightness in the chest, wheezing, productive
cough, and PULMONARY EDEMA may occur. Incontinence, unconsciousness
and convulsions indicate very severe poisoning. SLOW HEARTBEAT,
salivation, and tearing are common. TOXIC PSYCHOSIS, with manic or
bizarre behavior, has led to misdiagnosis of acute alcoholism. Slowing
of the heartbeat may rarely progress to complete sinus arrest.
RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION may be fatal. Continuing daily absorption of
organophosphate at intermediate dosage may cause an INFLUENZA-LIKE
ILLNESS characterized by weakness, anorexia, and malaise (25).
SKIN CONTACT: Bathe and shampoo victim with soap and water if
there is any chance that skin and hair are contaminated (25).
INGESTION: If victim is alert and respiration is not depressed,
give Syrup of Ipecac, followed by 1-2 glasses of water to induce
vomiting. Adults (including children over 12 yrs): 30 ml; children:
15 ml (25).
NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
Administer ATROPINE SULFATE intravenously, or intramuscularly, if IV
injection is not possible.
In MODERATELY SEVERE poisoning: Adult dosage: 0.4-2.0 mg repeated
every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved: tachycardia (pulse
of 140 per minute), flushing, dry mouth, dilated pupils. Maintain
atropinization by repeated doses for 2-12 hours or longer depending on
severity of poisoning.
Dosage for children under 12 years: 0.05 mg/kg body weight, repeated
every 15 minutes until atropinization is achieved. Maintain
atropinization with repeated dosage of 0.02-0.05 mg/kg.
SEVERELY POISONED individuals may exhibit remarkable tolerance to
atropine; two or more times the dosages suggested above may be needed.
Administer PRALIDOXIME (Protopam (TM)-Ayerst, 2-PAM) in cases of severe
poisoning in which respiratory depression, muscle weakness and
twitchings are severe.
Adult dosage: 1.0 gm intravenously at no more than 0.5 gm per minute.
Child's dose (under 12 years): 20-50 mg/kg (depending on severity of
poisoning) intravenously, injecting no more than half the total dose
Dosage of pralidoxime may be repeated in 1-2 hours, then at 10-12 hour
intervals if needed. In very severe poisonings, dosage rates may be
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
GENERAL: Use self-contained breathing equipment. Fight fire from
upwind. Wash thoroughly after exposure. Change and wash clothes
before reuse. Keep runoff from lakes, streams and ponds. Metal cans
could rupture violently under high heat (Abate 4E) (16). Will evolve
carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and/or phosphorous
trioxide (Abate 4E) (16).
EXTINGUISHER TYPE: Foam, CO2, dry chemical, fog (for Abate 4E) (16).
Not used with other materials (1).
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
STORAGE AND HANDLING: Store in cool, dry storage away from heat and
open flame. Do not contaminate food, feed or domestic water supplies.
Keep out of reach of children. Use only in accordance with label. Do
not reuse empty container (Abate 4E) (16).
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Impervious protective gloves; goggles or face
shield (Abate 4E) (16).
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT: Wilson Agritox #2 respirator with R21 cartridge
and R15 filter (Abate 4E) (16).
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
Absorb spill with clay, earth, sand, sawdust, then sweep up. Use
non-sparking tools. Use protective clothing, gloves, face shield and
respirator. Deposit in approved chemical disposal site (Abate 4E)
Dry material-vacuum or sweep up for salvage. Dispose in approved
chemical disposal site (Abate 5G) (16).
X. LITERATURE CITED
1. Harding, W.C. 1979. Pesticide profiles, part one: insecticides
and miticides. Univ. Maryland, Coop. Ext. Serv. Bull. 267.
8a. Thomson, W. T. 1976. Agricultural chemicals - book 1:
insecticides, acaricides, and ovicides. Revised ed. Thomson
Publ., Indianapolis, IN. 232 pp.
15b. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1971.
Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in
workroom air with supplements for those substances added or
changed since 1971, 3rd ed., 4th printing (1977). Cincinnati,
OH. 484 pp.
15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1984.
TLVs: threshold limit values for chemical substances and
physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
indices with intended changes for 1984-85. Cincinnati, OH.
16. Agway, Inc., Chemical Division. Material safety data sheet.
25. Morgan, D.P. 1982. Recognition and management of pesticide
poisonings, 3rd ed. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC. 120 pp.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
62. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 7th ed. 1983. C.R.
Worthing, ed. The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
England. 695 pp.