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Sodium Hypochlorite/Calcium Hypochlorite (Clorox, Bleach) Chemical Fact Sheet 2/86

                      CHEMICAL FACT SHEET FOR:
                   Sodium Hypochlorite and Calcium Hypochlorite


                 1.  DESCRIPTION OF CHEMICAL

- Generic name:  Sodium and calcium hypochlorites
- Common name:  Bleach
- Trade name:  Clorox, Purex
- EPA Shaughnessy code:  014701 (Calcium Hypochlorite); 014703 (Sodium
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) number:  7681-52-9 (Calcium)
  778-54-3 (Sodium)
- Year of registration:  1957
- Pesticide type:  Disinfectant, algaecide or sanitizer
- Chemical family:  Inorganic salts
- U.S. and foreign producers:  Jones Chemical Inc., Allied Chlorine
  Corp., Kuehne Chemical Company, Olin Corporation, Surpass Chemical
  Company, Penwalt Chemical Corporation, PPG Industries.


- Application sites:  Porous and nonporous food contact and nonfood
  contact surfaces, swimming pool water, drinking water, waste water and
  sewage, pulp and paper mill process water.
- Percent of pesticide applied to nonporous food contact surfaces, 100
  to 200 ppm available chlorine; porous food contact surfaces, 600 ppm;
  nonfood contact surfaces, 600 to 1000 ppm; swimming pools start-up, 5
  to 10 ppm available chlorine and maintain at 1.0 ppm to 1.5 ppm;
  drinking water, 0.2 ppm available chlorine; waste water, 0.5 ppm; pulp
  and paper mill process water, 5 to 10 ppm initial dose and subsequent
  dose of 1 ppm available chlorine.
- Application rates: N/A
- Types of formulations:  liquid (sodium hypochlorite) granular, powder
  and, tablet (calcium hypochlorite)
- Usual carriers:  Water
- Efficacy review results:  Product-by-product efficacy data
  requirements normally levied on disinfectants and sanitizers have been
  waived because the Agency has concluded that the published literature
  can reasonably be extrapolated to the full range of these products.

                       3.  SCIENCE FINDINGS

Chemical Characteristics

- Physical state:  clear liquid, sodium hypochlorite) granular, powder,
  and tablet, (calcium hypochlorite)
- Color:  clear liquid, (sodium hypochlorite) white, (calcium
- Odor:  chlorine
- pH:  Sodium Hypochlorite: 9.75-10.50; Calcium Hypochlorite:  12.59-
  13.11, concentrated aqueous solutions.
- Boiling point:  N/A
- Melting point:  N/A
- Flash point:  N/A

Toxicity Characteristics

- Toxicity category and value for sodium hypochlorite:
  - Acute oral toxicity:  IV; LD50, 192 mg/kg
  - Acute dermal toxicity:  III; LD50, > 3,000 mg/kg
  - Primary eye irritation:  I; Corrosive
  - Primary skin irritation:  I; Corrosive
- Toxicity category and value for calcium hypochlorite:
  - Acute oral toxicity:  III; LD50, 850 mg/kg
  - Acute dermal toxicity:  II; LD50, > 2g/kg
  - Acute inhalation: III; LC50, < 20mg/1
  - Primary eye irritation:  I; Corrosive
  - Primary skin irritation: I; Corrosive

Physiological and Biochemical Behavioral Characteristics:  N/A

Environmental Characteristics:  N/A

Ecological Characteristics

- Values for sodium hypochlorite:
  - Acute oral-bobwhite quail: LD50, > 2510 mg/kg
  - Acute dietary-mallard duck: LC50, > 5220 ppm
  - Acute dietary-bobwhite quail: LC50, > 5620 ppm
  - Acute fish-rainbow trout: LC50, 0.18-0.22 mg/l
  - Acute fish-bluegill sunfish: LC50, 0.44-0.79 mg/l
  - Acute invertebrate-daphnia: LC50, 0.033-0.048 mg/l

Tolerance Assessment

- An exemption from the requirement for a tolerance was established (40
  CFR 180,1054) for residues of calcium hypochlorite which may occur in
  or on raw agricultural commodity potatoes resulting from the use of
  washing solutions containing calcium hypochlorite.  After reexamining
  the exemption from the requirement for a tolerance, the Agency has
  determined that the exemption is still appropriate under current
  scientific standards.
- Food processing plants, dairies, canneries, breweries, wineries,
  beverage bottling plants and eating establishments use hypochlorites
  for sanitizing premises and for disinfecting equipment and utensils. A
  incidental food additive regulation allowing the use of sodium or
  calcium hypochlorites as a terminal sanitizing rinse on food
  processing equipment has been established (21 CFR 178.1010).  A food
  additive regulation permitting the use of sodium hypochlorites in
  washing or assisting in lye peeling of fruits and vegetables has been

  established (21 CFR 173.315) by the Food and Drug Administration
- The provisions of the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) (40
  CFR Part 180 require the establishment of a tolerance for exemption
  from the need for a tolerance) for the use of calcium hypochlorite on
  mushroom pins (preharvest); sweet potatoes (postharvest), pimento
  seeds, tomato seeds, pecans (postharvest), fish fillets.  EPA plans to
  propose to issue an exemption from the requirements of a tolerance for
  these uses.
- The provisions of the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 CFR 173
  Subpart D - Specific Usage Additives) require the establishment of a
  food additive regulation for calcium hypochlorite in sugar syrup and
  raw sugar.  Applicants whose product labeling contains such uses must

  either obtain a food additive regulation for the uses from the Food
  and Drug Administration within 12 months from the date of issuance of
  this standard or delete the claims from the labeling.
- Reported Pesticide Incidents: N/A

Summary Science Statement

- Based on a review of the available product chemistry, toxicity,
  environmental fate, and ecological effects data on sodium and calcium
  hypochlorites, the Agency has determined that any hazards associated
  with the uses of sodium and calcium hypochlorite are relatively small.


- Uses:  Final sanitizing rinses on food processing equipment and
  utensils; disinfection of nonporous hard surfaces; algicides/
  slimicides for water treatment systems; disinfection of poultry
  drinking water; disinfection of human drinking water, swimming pool
  water, hubbard/immersion tank water, spas/hot tubs, hydrotherapy
  pools, and human drinking water systems; laundry sanitizers; toilet
  bowl sanitizers.
- Formulations:  Liquid sodium hypochlorite solutions; solid (granular,
  powder, or tablet) calcium hypochlorite.
- Sodium and calcium hypochlorite single active ingredient products are
  eye irritants, but the potential for hazard from use of these products
  may be mitigated with appropriate precautionary labeling.
- The hypochlorites are the most widely used chemicals for disinfecting
  water supplies, are generally recognized as safe for use as post
  harvest fungicides on agricultural commodities, and are listed as
  sanitizers, for use as terminal sanitizing rinses of food handling
  equipment.  In the absence of significant long term dietary exposure
  to the hypochlorites from these patterns of use, there is no need for
  chronic or subchronic studies.  If lt comes to the attention of the
  Agency that hazards due to long term dietary exposure may be
  significant, then long term studies will be required.
- Unique warning statements:  None.

                    5.  SUMMARY OF MAJOR DATA GAPS

- There are no data gaps.

                        6.  CONTACT PERSON AT EPA

Jeff Kempter
Product Manager (32)
Disinfectants Branch
Registration Division (TS-767C)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
401 M. Street SW
Washington, DC 20460
(703) 557-3964