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4-Aminopyridine (Avitrol) - Chemical Profile 1/85

                                  4-aminopyridine
      CHEMICAL name:      4-aminopyridine
      TRADE name(S):      Avitrol (56)
      FORMULATION(S):     Grain baits: .5%, 1.0%, 3.0%.  Powder concentrate:
                          25%, 50% (56).  25% concentrate, 50% powder mix.
                          Various baits depending upon species to be
                          controlled.  Such baits as grain, corn and bread
                          have proven effective (8c).
      TYPE:               Avi-repellent
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Avitrol Corp.
                          320 S. Boston, Suite 514
                          Tulsa, OK 74130
      STATUS:             Restricted use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  EPA registered for control of crows, pigeons,
      grackles, starlings, sparrows, cowbirds, gulls, and blackbirds in and
      around structures and agriculture (sunflowers, field corn, sweet
      corn).  Causes individual members of a flock of birds to utter vocal
      and physical distress which acts as an area repellency to the remainder
      of the flock (56).
           To drive birds from cattle feed lots, field corn, wheat, sorghum,
      sunflowers, agricultural areas, peanuts, pecans, grain, processing
      plants, air-ports, warehouse premises, public buildings and similar
      structures (8c).
                                    I.  EFFICACY
      Important Pests Repelled:  Sparrows, pigeons, starlings, blackbirds,
      cowbirds, gulls, crows and other birds that create a public nuisance
      (8c).
           Avitrol works primarily by producing an adverse effect in birds
      that feed upon it.  The effects vary, depending on the quantity of
      Avitrol consumed, the condition of the birds, and the bird species.
      They can be classified as follows:
      1.  There is no visible or audible response.  The bird leaves the
          area.  This effect occurs at high bait dilution rates so that the
          bird ingests only a small amount of treated bait.  Mortality is
          very low.
      2.  The bird may utter distress calls, flap about, fly in an unusual
          manner, or otherwise show effects.  You can expect some of these
          birds to die, perhaps up to 10 percent.
      3.  The bird shows an advance form of effect Number 2.  The reactions
          are violent and vigorous and the bird eventually becomes
          incapacitated.  A high percentage of these birds die.  This effect
          is caused by high dosage rates of treated bait or by birds having a
          low susceptibility factor.
          Birds affected by Avitrol will usually react within 5-15 minutes
      and often continue to "demonstrate" for 30 minutes or longer.  "Downed"
      birds either die or recover within 1-15 hours (72a).
                              II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C5 H4 N2 H2 (3)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     White crystalline material (56)
      ODOR:               None (56)
      MELTING POINT:      158 C (56)
      BOILING POINT:      273.5 C (3)
      SOLUBILITY:         Soluble in water (3)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  NA
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      TOXICOLOGY
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  Avitrol apparently does not readily penetrate skin
      or is not easily released when impregnated on grain.  Using rabbits as
      test animals, grain containing 0.5 percent and 1.5 percent Avitrol
      produced no symptoms after exposure to bare skin for 18 hours a day,
      for ten consecutive days.  The technical grade chemical will pass
      through the skin and has an LD50 for rabbits of 326 mg/kg (72a).
               ORAL:  LD50 = 20 mg/kg (rat) (56).
               This chemical has caused severe poisoning in adult humans
      at dosages no greater than about 60 mg (25).
               Avitrol is a highly toxic chemical in the technical
      grade.  It has an acute oral LD50 in rats of 28.7 mg/kg.  The same
      figure for dogs is 3.7 mg of Avitrol/kg (72a).
               You will normally handle only treated grain containing one
      percent or less Avitrol.  Therefore, the hazard is greatly reduced.
      The acute oral LD50 of grain containing 0.53 percent Avitrol is 3,547
      mg/kg for young pigs and 2,377 mg/kg for dogs (72a).
                         IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
           Avitrol is apparently toxic to all species of birds.  The acute
      oral LD50's for the technical grade for various bird species are as
      follows:
                          chickens               10-12 mg/kg
                          gulls                      8 mg/kg
                          crows                      3 mg/kg
                          pheasant                 5.6 mg/kg
                          Bobwhite quail            15 mg/kg
                          mourning dove              8 mg/kg
                          sprarrows              3.8-4 mg/kg
                          starlings                5-6 mg/kg
                          pigeons                  4-7 mg/kg
                          blackbirds                 9 mg/kg
                          boat-tailed grackle      3.2 mg/kg (72a)
           The secondary poisoning hazard from animals such as cats, dogs or
      birds of prey feeding upon birds killed by Avitrol is reported to be
      very low or non-existent (72a).
                       V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
      original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
      of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan, which have been
      footnoted.  This information has been provided in this form for your
      convenience and general guidance only.  In specific cases, further
      consultation and reference may be required and is recommended.  This
      information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
      review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
      trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      SYMPTOMS:  Human poisonings have been characterized by thirst,
      nausea, dizziness, weakness, and intense diaphoresis, followed by toxic
      psychosis, ataxia, tremors, dyspnea, and tonic-clonic convulsions.
      Metabolic acidosis, leukocytosis, and elevations of serum, GOT, LDH,
      and alkaline phosphatase were notable laboratory findings.  EKG may
      show nonspecific ST-T wave changes (25).
           Avitrol produces epileptic-like symptoms in mammals (72a).
           INGESTION:  If the patient is unconscious, maintain breathing
      and heart beat (CPR:  Cardiopulmonary resusitation).  Contact your
      local Poison Control Center, hospital or physician immediately.  If
      patient is conscious, induce vomiting with Syrup of Ipecac (if not
      available, stimulate the back of the throat with finger).  Never give
      anything by mouth to an unconscious person.  Contact your Poison
      Control Center or physician immediately (56).
      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
      Promptly evacuate gut by intubation, lavage, activated charcoal
      administration, and saline catharsis.  Control convulsions with
      diazepam.  Initiate diuresis with intravenous infusions, including
      mannitol.  To date, poisoning victims have recovered in 24-48 hours
      without severe sequelae.
           Pancuronium is an antagonist of 4-aminopyridine, and can control
      seizures.  It must be administered under the supervision of an
      anesthesiologist because of the likelihood of generalized paralysis.
      Propranolol may help to limit cardiac toxicity.  Atropine controls the
      gastrointestinal symptoms (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
           To be developed.
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           To be developed.
                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Powder concentrates:  Applicators must wear
      protective clothing, including long sleeves, gloves and respirators
      when using this product.  Grain concentrates:  Handle with protective
      gloves.  Wash throroughly with soap and water after handling all
      concentrates.  Shelf life indefinite as long as kept dry (56).
                        IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                      IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                   (800) 424-9300
                       PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       3.  The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 8th ed.  1971.  VanNostrand
               Reihnold Co., New York, NY.  971 pp.
       8c. Thomson, W.T.  1980.  Agricultural chemicals - book III:
               fumigants, growth regulators, repellents, and rodenticides.
               1981 revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.  182 pp.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      72a. National Pest Control Association.  1972.  Technical release -
               Avitrol.  No. 5-72.  Elizabeth, NJ.
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