4-Aminopyridine (Avitrol) - Chemical Profile 1/85
CHEMICAL name: 4-aminopyridine
TRADE name(S): Avitrol (56)
FORMULATION(S): Grain baits: .5%, 1.0%, 3.0%. Powder concentrate:
25%, 50% (56). 25% concentrate, 50% powder mix.
Various baits depending upon species to be
controlled. Such baits as grain, corn and bread
have proven effective (8c).
BASIC PRODUCER(S): Avitrol Corp.
320 S. Boston, Suite 514
Tulsa, OK 74130
STATUS: Restricted use
PRINCIPAL USES: EPA registered for control of crows, pigeons,
grackles, starlings, sparrows, cowbirds, gulls, and blackbirds in and
around structures and agriculture (sunflowers, field corn, sweet
corn). Causes individual members of a flock of birds to utter vocal
and physical distress which acts as an area repellency to the remainder
of the flock (56).
To drive birds from cattle feed lots, field corn, wheat, sorghum,
sunflowers, agricultural areas, peanuts, pecans, grain, processing
plants, air-ports, warehouse premises, public buildings and similar
Important Pests Repelled: Sparrows, pigeons, starlings, blackbirds,
cowbirds, gulls, crows and other birds that create a public nuisance
Avitrol works primarily by producing an adverse effect in birds
that feed upon it. The effects vary, depending on the quantity of
Avitrol consumed, the condition of the birds, and the bird species.
They can be classified as follows:
1. There is no visible or audible response. The bird leaves the
area. This effect occurs at high bait dilution rates so that the
bird ingests only a small amount of treated bait. Mortality is
2. The bird may utter distress calls, flap about, fly in an unusual
manner, or otherwise show effects. You can expect some of these
birds to die, perhaps up to 10 percent.
3. The bird shows an advance form of effect Number 2. The reactions
are violent and vigorous and the bird eventually becomes
incapacitated. A high percentage of these birds die. This effect
is caused by high dosage rates of treated bait or by birds having a
low susceptibility factor.
Birds affected by Avitrol will usually react within 5-15 minutes
and often continue to "demonstrate" for 30 minutes or longer. "Downed"
birds either die or recover within 1-15 hours (72a).
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C5 H4 N2 H2 (3)
PHYSICAL STATE: White crystalline material (56)
ODOR: None (56)
MELTING POINT: 158 C (56)
BOILING POINT: 273.5 C (3)
SOLUBILITY: Soluble in water (3)
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: NA
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: NA
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: NA
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
DERMAL: Avitrol apparently does not readily penetrate skin
or is not easily released when impregnated on grain. Using rabbits as
test animals, grain containing 0.5 percent and 1.5 percent Avitrol
produced no symptoms after exposure to bare skin for 18 hours a day,
for ten consecutive days. The technical grade chemical will pass
through the skin and has an LD50 for rabbits of 326 mg/kg (72a).
ORAL: LD50 = 20 mg/kg (rat) (56).
This chemical has caused severe poisoning in adult humans
at dosages no greater than about 60 mg (25).
Avitrol is a highly toxic chemical in the technical
grade. It has an acute oral LD50 in rats of 28.7 mg/kg. The same
figure for dogs is 3.7 mg of Avitrol/kg (72a).
You will normally handle only treated grain containing one
percent or less Avitrol. Therefore, the hazard is greatly reduced.
The acute oral LD50 of grain containing 0.53 percent Avitrol is 3,547
mg/kg for young pigs and 2,377 mg/kg for dogs (72a).
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Avitrol is apparently toxic to all species of birds. The acute
oral LD50's for the technical grade for various bird species are as
chickens 10-12 mg/kg
gulls 8 mg/kg
crows 3 mg/kg
pheasant 5.6 mg/kg
Bobwhite quail 15 mg/kg
mourning dove 8 mg/kg
sprarrows 3.8-4 mg/kg
starlings 5-6 mg/kg
pigeons 4-7 mg/kg
blackbirds 9 mg/kg
boat-tailed grackle 3.2 mg/kg (72a)
The secondary poisoning hazard from animals such as cats, dogs or
birds of prey feeding upon birds killed by Avitrol is reported to be
very low or non-existent (72a).
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan, which have been
footnoted. This information has been provided in this form for your
convenience and general guidance only. In specific cases, further
consultation and reference may be required and is recommended. This
information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
SYMPTOMS: Human poisonings have been characterized by thirst,
nausea, dizziness, weakness, and intense diaphoresis, followed by toxic
psychosis, ataxia, tremors, dyspnea, and tonic-clonic convulsions.
Metabolic acidosis, leukocytosis, and elevations of serum, GOT, LDH,
and alkaline phosphatase were notable laboratory findings. EKG may
show nonspecific ST-T wave changes (25).
Avitrol produces epileptic-like symptoms in mammals (72a).
INGESTION: If the patient is unconscious, maintain breathing
and heart beat (CPR: Cardiopulmonary resusitation). Contact your
local Poison Control Center, hospital or physician immediately. If
patient is conscious, induce vomiting with Syrup of Ipecac (if not
available, stimulate the back of the throat with finger). Never give
anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Contact your Poison
Control Center or physician immediately (56).
NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
Promptly evacuate gut by intubation, lavage, activated charcoal
administration, and saline catharsis. Control convulsions with
diazepam. Initiate diuresis with intravenous infusions, including
mannitol. To date, poisoning victims have recovered in 24-48 hours
without severe sequelae.
Pancuronium is an antagonist of 4-aminopyridine, and can control
seizures. It must be administered under the supervision of an
anesthesiologist because of the likelihood of generalized paralysis.
Propranolol may help to limit cardiac toxicity. Atropine controls the
gastrointestinal symptoms (25).
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
To be developed.
To be developed.
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
STORAGE AND HANDLING: Powder concentrates: Applicators must wear
protective clothing, including long sleeves, gloves and respirators
when using this product. Grain concentrates: Handle with protective
gloves. Wash throroughly with soap and water after handling all
concentrates. Shelf life indefinite as long as kept dry (56).
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
X. LITERATURE CITED
3. The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 8th ed. 1971. VanNostrand
Reihnold Co., New York, NY. 971 pp.
8c. Thomson, W.T. 1980. Agricultural chemicals - book III:
fumigants, growth regulators, repellents, and rodenticides.
1981 revised ed. Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA. 182 pp.
25. Morgan, D.P. 1982. Recognition and management of pesticide
poisonings, 3rd ed. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC. 120 pp.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
72a. National Pest Control Association. 1972. Technical release -
Avitrol. No. 5-72. Elizabeth, NJ.