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Antu (Anturat, Krysid) - Chemical Profile 1/85

                                        antu
      CHEMICAL name:      alpha-naphthylthiourea (56)
      TRADE name(S):      Anturat, Bantu, Rattract, Kill Kantz, Rat-tu,
                          Krysid (8c).
      FORMULATION(S):     1-3% baits (8c).  Baits (10-30 g/kg) in suitable
                          protein- or carbohydrate-rich materials; tracking
                          powder (200 g/kg) (62).
      TYPE:               Thiourea rodenticide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Prentiss Drug and Chemical Co., Inc.
                          21 Vernon St.
                          CB 2000
                          Floral Park, NY 11001
                          Penick Corp.
                          1050 Wall St. West
                          Lyndhurst, NJ 07071
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:     A specific control for the adult Norway rat.  Less
      toxic to other rat species.  Relatively safe for domestic animals;
      induces vomiting in dogs (56).  Withdrawn from the market in some
      countries.  Was widely used just after World War II, but is being
      replaced by the anti-coagulant compounds (8c).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  Distribute teaspoon quantities where rodents
      frequent, feed, water or travel.  One application is generally all that
      is necessary.  Also used as a tracking dust, blowing dust into burrows
      or where rats generally travel (8c).
                                    I.  EFFICACY
      Important Pests Controlled:  Norway rats.  Not recommended for use
      against roof rats or house mice (8c).
           Rats develop resistance to repeated administration of
      sub-lethal doses.  Don't use repeated exposures on rats since
      survivors quickly develop a prejudice against it.  Not effective
      against the black rat or ground squirrels.  Do not repeat treatment
      within months of the first application (8c).
                              II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C11 H10 N2 S (62)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   203.3 (62)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Colorless crystals (pure compound); blue-gray
                          powder (technical product) (62).
      MELTING POINT:      198 C (pure compound) (62)
      BOILING POINT:      Decomposes (14)
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     Essentially zero at 20 C (68 F) (14).
      SOLUBILITY:         600 mg/l at room temperature (pure compound) (62)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  0.3 mg/m3 averaged over an eight-hour work shift (14).
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 0.3 mg/m3; STEL
                          (Short Term Exposure Limit) = 0.9 mg/m3 (deleted)
                          (15c).
      TOXICOLOGY
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY

               DERMAL:  ANTU is stated to be nonirritating to the human
                        skin (14).
               ORAL:  LD50 = 6 mg/kg (rat); 38 mg/kg (dog); very low
                      human toxicity (8c).
           In humans, the lethal dose by ingestion is estimated to be
      approximately 4 g/kg.  In one instance of human intoxication by ANTU,
      80 g of a rat poison containing 30% ANTU was ingested along with a
      considerable amount of ethanol; signs attributable to ANTU were prompt
      transient vomiting, dyspnea, cyanosis, and coarse pulmonary rales; no
      pleural effusion occurred, and the pulmonary signs gradually cleared
      (14).
           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
           In some countries it has been withdrawn from use because of the
      carcinogenicity of naphthylamines present as impurities (62).
                         IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
           Relatively safe for domestic animals; induces vomiting in dogs
      (56).
                       V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
      original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
      of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan, which have been
      footnoted.  This information has been provided in this form for your
      convenience and general guidance only.  In specific cases, further
      consultation and reference may be required and is recommended.  This
      information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
      review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
      trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
           FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING:  Pulmonary rales,
      DYSPNEA and cyanosis may be expected following ingestion of large
      amounts (25).
           SKIN CONTACT:  If ANTU or liquids containing ANTU get on the skin,
      promptly wash the contaminated skin using soap or mild detergent and
      water.  If ANTU or liquids containing ANTU soak through the clothing,
      remove the clothing immediately and wash the skin using soap or mild
      detergent and water (14).
           INGESTION:  When ANTU or liquids containing ANTU have been
      swallowed and the person is conscious, give the person large quantities
      of water immediately.  After the water has been swallowed, try to get
      the person to vomit by having him touch the back of his throat with his
      finger.  Do not make an unconscious person vomit.  Get medical attention
      immediately (14).
           INHALATION:  If a person breathes in large amounts of ANTU, move
      the exposed person to fresh air at once.  If breathing has stopped,
      perform artificial respiration.  Keep the affected person warm and at
      rest.  Get medical attention as soon as possible (14).
           EYE CONTACT:   If ANTU or liquids containing ANTU get into the
      eyes, wash eyes immediately with large amounts of water, lifting the
      lower and upper lids occasionally.  If irritation is present after
      washing, get medical attention.  Contact lenses should not be worn when
      working with this chemical (14).
           NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
      1.   Significant toxicity is not expected from this agent.  If an
           extraordinary amount has been ingested, empty the gut.  Administer
           SYRUP OF IPECAC, then 1-2 glasses of water, to induce vomiting.
           Adult dose:  30 ml, dose for children under 12 years:  15 ml.
           Follow with 30-50 gm activated charcoal in 3-4 ounces of water,
           then 0.25 gm/kg SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE in 1-6 ounces water.
      2.   If dyspnea appears, administer OXYGEN by continuous flow or by
           intermittent POSITIVE PRESSURE (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
           To be developed.
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           To be developed.
                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Only experienced persons should handle this
      material.  Keep out of reach of pets and other animals (69).
      PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT:
                          RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR ANTU
                                              Minimum Respiratory Protection*
      Condition                                  Required Above 0.3 mg/m3
      _______________________________________________________________________
      Particulate Concentration
      3 mg/m3 or less               Any chemical cartridge respirator with an
                                    organic vapor cartridge(s) and dust and
                                    mist filter(s), including pesticide
                                    respirators which meet the requirements
                                    of this class.
                                    Any supplied-air respirator.
                                    Any self-contained breathing apparatus.
      _______________________________________________________________________
      15 mg/m3 or less              A chemical cartridge respirator with a
                                    full facepiece, organic vapor
                                    cartridge(s), and dust and mist
                                    filter(s), including pesticide
                                    respirators which meet the requirements
                                    of this class.
                                    A gas mask with a chin-style or a front-
                                    or back-mounted organic vapor canister
                                    and dust and mist filter, including

                                    pesticide respirators which meet the
                                    requirements of this class.
                                    Any supplied-air respirator with a full
                                    facepiece, helmet, or hood.
                                    Any self-contained breathing apparatus
                                    with a full facepiece.
      _______________________________________________________________________
      100 mg/m3 or less             A Type C supplied-air respirator operated
                                    in pressure-demand or other positive
                                    pressure or continuous-flow mode.
                                    A powered chemical cartridge respirator
                                    with an organic vapor cartridge and a
                                    high efficiency filter, including
                                    pesticide respirators which meet the
                                    requirements of this class.
      _______________________________________________________________________
      Greater than 100 mg/m3 or     Self-contained breathing apparatus with a
      entry and escape from         full facepiece operated in
      unknown concentrations        pressure-demand or other positive
                                    pressure mode.
                                    A combination respirator which includes a
                                    Type C supplied-air respirator with a
                                    full facepiece operated in
                                    pressure-demand or other positive
                                    pressure or continuous-flow mode and an
                                    auxiliary self-contained breathing
                                    apparatus operated in pressure-demand or
                                    other positive pressure mode.
      _______________________________________________________________________
      Fire Fighting                 Self-contained breathing apparatus with a
                                    full facepiece operated in
                                    pressure-demand or other positive
                                    pressure mode.
      _______________________________________________________________________
      Escape                        Any gas mask providing protection against
                                    organic vapors and particulates,
                                    including pesticide respirators which
                                    meet the requirements of this class.
                                    Any escape self-contained breathing
                                    apparatus.
      _______________________________________________________________________
      * Only NIOSH-approved or MSHA-approved equipment should be used (14).
                        IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                      IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                   (800) 424-9300
                       PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
      Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be
      restricted from areas of spills until cleanup has been completed.
           If ANTU is spilled, the following steps should be taken:
      1.   Ventilate area of spill.
      2.   For small quantities, sweep onto paper or other suitable material,
           place in an appropriate container and burn in a safe place (such
           as a fume hood).  Large quantities may be reclaimed; however, if
           this is not practical, dissolve in a flammable solvent (such as
           alcohol) and atomize in a suitable combustion chamber equipped
           with an appropriate effluent gas cleaning device.
           Waste disposal methods:
      ANTU may be disposed of:
      1.   By making packages of ANTU in paper or other flammable material
           and burning in a suitable combustion chamber equipped with an
           appropriate effluent gas cleaning device.
      2.   By dissolving ANTU in a flammable solvent (such as alcohol) and
           atomizing in a suitable combustion chamber equipped with an
           appropriate effluent gas cleaning device (14).
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8c. Thomson, W.T.  1980.  Agricultural chemicals - book III:
               fumigants, growth regulators, repellents, and rodenticides.
               1981 revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.  182 pp.
      14.  U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute
               for Occuptational Safety and Health.  1981.  Occupational
               health guidelines for chemical hazards.  F. W. Mackinson, R.
               S. Stricoff, L. J. Partridge, Jr., and A. D. Little, Inc.,
               eds.  DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 81-123.  Washington, DC.
      15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1984.
               TLVs:  threshold limit values for chemical substances and
               physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
               indices with intended changes for 1984-85.  Cincinnati, OH.
               116 pp.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.
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