Chlorophacinone (ROZOL®) - Chemical Profile 1/85
CHEMICAL name: 2-[(p-chlorophenyl)phenylacetyl]-1,3-indandione
TRADE name(S): Rozol, Microzul, Ramucide, Ratomet, Raviac, Topitox
FORMULATION(S): Oil concentrate, dust concentrate, baits, tracking
powder, paraffin blocks, pellets and ground spray.
Concentrates available for mixing registered baits
TYPE: Rodenticide (anticoagulant)
BASIC PRODUCER(S): Chempar Products Div.
Lipha Chemicals, Inc.
660 Madison Ave.
New York, NY 10021
STATUS: General use
PRINCIPAL USES: Oil concentrate for impregnating bait material.
Rozol is used also in production of paraffin blocks, water bait,
and tracking powder and is variously labeled for use indoors and
outdoors (56). Pests controlled: mice, rats, moles, muskrats,
voles and vampire bats. Can be used in food areas, schools,
hospitals, nursery homes and industrial plants. Does not require
many feedings (69).
It is an anticoagulant rodenticide, a single dose of a 50 mg/kg
bait killing Rattus norvegiaus from the 5th day. It is normally
incorporated as 50-250 mg/kg bait. It does not induce "bait-shyness".
In mammals it uncouples oxidative phospharylation in addition
to its anticoagulant action (62).
This is the only rodenticide that dissolves in oil. Controls
warfarin resistant rodents (8c).
APPLICATION METHOD(S): Apply where rodents have access to the bait.
Replenish bait supply as it is consumed. Use the tracking powder in
areas where rodents travel. Being used in orchard vole control
programs in certain areas (8c).
To be developed.
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C23 H15 Cl O3 (62)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 374.8 (62)
PHYSICAL STATE: Yellow crystalline solid (62); white crystalline
solid (pure compound) (21i).
ODOR: Odorless (pure compound) (21i)
MELTING POINT: 140 C (pure compound) (21i)
VAPOR PRESSURE: Negligible at 20 C (62)
SOLUBILITY: Sparingly soluble in water (pure compound) (21i)
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: NA
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: NA
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: NA
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
DERMAL: LD50 = 200 mg/kg (albino rabbit) (21i).
A solution of 5 mg in 2 ml liquid paraffin applied
to 100 cm2 of a rabbit's shaved skin caused only a
slight reduction of prothrombin rating (62).
ORAL: LD50 = 20.5 mg/kg (albino rat); 50 mg/kg (albino
rabbit); 2.1 mg/kg (white rat); 0.49 mg/kg (deer
mouse); 7.5 mg/kg (vampire bat) (21i).
Human volunteers tolerated a single dose of 20 mg
a.i. with an uneventful recovery without treatment
LD50 (albino rats after one ingestion), 20.5 mg/kg
as 100% chlorophacinone after 8-14 days. Lethal
dosage: on commensal rodents 410 g/kg of 0.005%
chlorophacinone formulations. On field mice, this
dosage may vary according to species and method of
application, generally from 0.005% to 0.0075%
B. SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
To be developed.
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Acute oral LD50: 430 mg/kg (red-winged blackbird): 100 mg/kg
(mallard duck, ring-necked pheasant) (21i).
This product is toxic to fish and wildlife (70a).
Administration of 15 daily doses of 2.25 mg to grey partridges
produced no ill-effect (62).
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan, which have been
footnoted. This information has been provided in this form for your
convenience and general guidance only. In specific cases, further
consultation and reference may be required and is recommended. This
information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING:
Coumarins, indandiones, and other anticoagulants: In most cases
of ingestion of anticoagulants, victims have remained asymptomatic, due
to the small dosage taken. Even in cases involving ingestion of
substantial amounts of anticoagulant compound (more often medication
than rodenticide), hypoprothrombinemia has occurred without symptoms of
poisoning. Hemorrhage appears only when extraordinary amounts have
been absorbed. In reported cases, the anticoagulants were either taken
deliberately, were absorbed over long periods out of neglect of
elementary hygienic standards, or were ingested by starving indigents
who used quantities of rodent bait as food.
Victims of large doses exhibit HEMATURIA, NOSEBLEED, HEMATOMATA,
BLEEDING GUMS, and MELENA, ABDOMINAL PAIN and BACK PAIN probably
reflect hemorrhage in the abdominal and retroperitoneal tissues.
WEAKNESS occurs as a result of ANEMIA. RENAL COLIC often complicates
severe hematuria. Nasal and gastrointestinal hemorrhages have
occasionally caused death from exsanguination (25).
SKIN CONTACT: Wash thoroughly with soap and plenty of water.
Call a physician immediately (70a).
INGESTION: Drink 1 or 2 glasses of water and induce vomiting
by touching back of throat with finger or blunt object. Do not induce
vomiting or give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get
medical attention (70a).
EYE CONTACT: Flush with lots of water. Call a physician
NOTES TO PHYSICIAN: If swallowed or absorbed by humans, domestic
animals or pets, this material may reduce the clotting ability of the
blood and cause bleeding. In that case, intravenous and oral
administration of Vitamin K, combined with blood transfusions are
indicated as in the case of hemorrhage caused by overdoses of
bishydroxy coumarin (70a).
Coumarins, indandiones, and other anticoagulants
1. If only a few grains of anticoagulant bait have been ingested by
an adult or child having no antecedent liver or blood clotting
disease, treatment is probably unnecessary.
A. If there is uncertainty about the amount of bait ingested or
the general health of the patient, PHYTONADIONE (vitamin K1,
Mephyton) given orally protects against the anticoagulant
effect of these rodenticides. For adults, give 15-25 mg; for
children under 12, give 5-10 mg. Alternatively, a colloidal
solution of phytonadione, Aquamephyton, may be given
intramuscularly. For adults, give 5-10 mg; for children under
12, give 1-5 mg.
CAUTION: PHYTONADIONE, specifically, is required. Neither
vitamin K3 (menadione, Hykinone) nor vitamin K4
(menadiol) is an antidote for these anticoagulants.
B. Whatever the dosage, insure that patients (especially
children) will be CAREFULLY OBSERVED for 4-5 days after
ingestion. The indandiones and the more recently introduced
anticoagulants have toxic effects apart from anticoagulation
that are not yet well defined.
2. If LARGE AMOUNTS of anticoagulant were ingested in the preceding
2-3 hours, INDUCE VOMITING with SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2
glasses of water. For adults, give 30 ml; for children under 12,
15 ml. Following emesis, give 30-50 gm ACTIVATED CHARCOAL in 4-6
ounces of water to limit absorption of anticoagulant remaining in
3. If anticoagulant has been ingested any time in the preceding 15
days, determination of PROTHROMBIN TIME provides a basis for
judging the severity of poisoning.
A. If the propthrombin time is lengthened, give Aquamephyton,
intramuscularly: adult dose, 5-10 mg; child's dose: 1-5 mg.
Decide dose according to the degree of prothrombin time
lengthening and, in children, the age and weight of the child.
B. Repeat prothrombin time in 24 hours. If it has not decreased
from the original value, repeat Aquamephyton dosage.
4. If victim shows SYMPTOMS or SIGNS of ANTICOAGULANT POISONING
(bleeding) in addition to hypoprothrombinemia, administer
Aquamephyton intramuscularly, up to 25 mg in the adult, and up to
0.6 mg/kg in children under 12 years. Phytonadione administration
may be repeated in 24 hours if bleeding continues.
A. In cases of SEVERE BLEEDING, it may be necessary to give
Aquamephyton intravenously. This is especially true if the
bleeding tendency is so severe that intramuscular injection is
likely to cause hematoma formation. Dosage is up to 25 mg in
the adult, up to 0.6 mg/kg in children under 12 years. Repeat
this dose in 24 hours if bleeding continues. Inject at rates
not exceeding 5% of the total dose per minute. INTRAVENOUS
INFUSION of the Aquamephyton DILUTED IN SALINE OR GLUCOSE
SOLUTION is recommended. Bleeding is usually controlled in
CAUTION: Adverse reactions, some fatal, have occurred from
INTRAVENOUS phytonadione injections, even when
recommended dosage limits and injection rates were
observed. For this reason, the INTRAVENOUS route
should be used ONLY IN cases of SEVERE POISONING.
Flushing, dizziness, hypotension, dyspnea, and
cyanosis have characterized adverse reactions.
B. Antidotal therapy IN cases of SEVERE BLEEDING should be
supplemented with TRANSFUSIONS of FRESH BLOOD or FRESH FROZEN
PLASMA. Use of fresh blood or plasma represents the most
rapidly effective method of stopping hemorrhage due to these
C. Determine PROTHROMBIN TIMES (and hemoglobin concentrations, if
appropriate) every 6-12 hours to assess effectiveness of
D. When normal blood coagulation is restored, it may be advisable
to drain large hematomata.
E. Ferrous sulfate therapy may be appropriate in the recuperative
period to rebuild lost erythrocyte mass (25).
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
To be developed.
The pure material is stable but degrades by oxidation when used in
bait formulations. It is non-corrosive (21i).
Chlorophacinone is stable, resistant to weathering and is
non-corrosive; compatible with cereals, fruits, root and other
potential bait substrates (62).
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
STORAGE AND HANDLING: Fatal if swallowed or absorbed through the
skin. Do not inhale mist. Keep away from humans, domestic animals and
pets. Keep out of lakes, streams and ponds. Do not apply when rain is
forecasted, or to areas where runoff will occur. Do not apply when
weather conditions favor drift. Do not contaminate water by cleaning
of equipment or disposal of wastes (70a).
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Ths product can be absorbed through the skin, so
it should be handled with gloves. Wear protective mask (70a).
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
X. LITERATURE CITED
8c. Thomson, W.T. 1980. Agricultural chemicals - book III:
fumigants, growth regulators, repellents, and rodenticides.
1981 revised ed. Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA. 182 pp.
21i. Agriculture Canada, Production and Marketing Branch, Plant
Products Division. 1972. Memorandum re: registration of
a new pesticide: chlorophacinone. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
25. Morgan, D.P. 1982. Recognition and management of pesticide
poisonings, 3rd ed. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC. 120 pp.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
62. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 7th ed. 1983. C.R.
Worthing, ed. The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
England. 695 pp.
69. Harding, W. C. 1981-1982. Pesticide profiles, part three:
fumigants, repellents, and rodenticides. Univ. Maryland,
Coop. Ext. Service Bull. 288, 25 pp.
70a. Lipha Chemicals, Inc., Chempar Products Division. 1982.
Specimen label: Rozol. New York, NY.