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Chlorophacinone (ROZOL®) - Chemical Profile 1/85

                                  chlorophacinone
      CHEMICAL name:      2-[(p-chlorophenyl)phenylacetyl]-1,3-indandione
                          (56)
      TRADE name(S):      Rozol, Microzul, Ramucide, Ratomet, Raviac, Topitox
                          (56).
      FORMULATION(S):     Oil concentrate, dust concentrate, baits, tracking
                          powder, paraffin blocks, pellets and ground spray.
                          Concentrates available for mixing registered baits
                          (56).
      TYPE:               Rodenticide (anticoagulant)
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Chempar Products Div.
                          Lipha Chemicals, Inc.

                          660 Madison Ave.
                          New York, NY 10021
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  Oil concentrate for impregnating bait material.
      Rozol is used also in production of paraffin  blocks, water bait,
      and tracking powder and is variously labeled for use indoors and
      outdoors (56).  Pests controlled:  mice, rats, moles, muskrats,
      voles and vampire bats.  Can be used in food areas, schools,
      hospitals, nursery homes and industrial plants.  Does not require
      many feedings (69).
           It is an anticoagulant rodenticide, a single dose of a 50 mg/kg
      bait killing Rattus norvegiaus from the 5th day.  It is normally
      incorporated as 50-250 mg/kg bait.  It does not induce "bait-shyness".
           In mammals it uncouples oxidative phospharylation in addition
      to its anticoagulant action (62).
           This is the only rodenticide that dissolves in oil.  Controls
      warfarin resistant rodents (8c).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  Apply where rodents have access to the bait.
      Replenish bait supply as it is consumed.  Use the tracking powder in
      areas where rodents travel.  Being used in orchard vole control
      programs in certain areas (8c).
                                    I.  EFFICACY
           To be developed.
                              II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C23 H15 Cl O3 (62)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   374.8 (62)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Yellow crystalline solid (62); white crystalline
                          solid (pure compound) (21i).
      ODOR:               Odorless (pure compound) (21i)
      MELTING POINT:      140 C (pure compound) (21i)
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     Negligible at 20 C (62)
      SOLUBILITY:         Sparingly soluble in water (pure compound) (21i)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  NA
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      TOXICOLOGY
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:    LD50 = 200 mg/kg (albino rabbit) (21i).

                          A solution of 5 mg in 2 ml liquid paraffin applied
                          to 100 cm2 of a rabbit's shaved skin caused only a
                          slight reduction of prothrombin rating (62).
               ORAL:      LD50 = 20.5 mg/kg (albino rat); 50 mg/kg (albino
                          rabbit); 2.1 mg/kg (white rat); 0.49 mg/kg (deer
                          mouse); 7.5 mg/kg (vampire bat) (21i).
                          Human volunteers tolerated a single dose of 20 mg
                          a.i. with an uneventful recovery without treatment
                          (62).
                          LD50 (albino rats after one ingestion), 20.5 mg/kg
                          as 100% chlorophacinone after 8-14 days.  Lethal
                          dosage:  on commensal rodents 410 g/kg of 0.005%
                          chlorophacinone formulations.  On field mice, this
                          dosage may vary according to species and method of
                          application, generally from 0.005% to 0.0075%
                          (56).
           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
           To be developed.
                         IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
           Acute oral LD50:  430 mg/kg (red-winged blackbird):  100 mg/kg
      (mallard duck, ring-necked pheasant) (21i).
           This product is toxic to fish and wildlife (70a).
           Administration of 15 daily doses of 2.25 mg to grey partridges
      produced no ill-effect (62).
                       V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
      original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
      of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan, which have been
      footnoted.  This information has been provided in this form for your
      convenience and general guidance only.  In specific cases, further
      consultation and reference may be required and is recommended.  This
      information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
      review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
      trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING:
           Coumarins, indandiones, and other anticoagulants:  In most cases
      of ingestion of anticoagulants, victims have remained asymptomatic, due
      to the small dosage taken.  Even in cases involving ingestion of
      substantial amounts of anticoagulant compound (more often medication
      than rodenticide), hypoprothrombinemia has occurred without symptoms of
      poisoning.  Hemorrhage appears only when extraordinary amounts have
      been absorbed.  In reported cases, the anticoagulants were either taken
      deliberately, were absorbed over long periods out of neglect of
      elementary hygienic standards, or were ingested by starving indigents
      who used quantities of rodent bait as food.
           Victims of large doses exhibit HEMATURIA, NOSEBLEED, HEMATOMATA,
      BLEEDING GUMS, and MELENA, ABDOMINAL PAIN and BACK PAIN probably
      reflect hemorrhage in the abdominal and retroperitoneal tissues.
      WEAKNESS occurs as a result of ANEMIA.  RENAL COLIC often complicates
      severe hematuria.  Nasal and gastrointestinal hemorrhages have
      occasionally caused death from exsanguination (25).
           SKIN CONTACT:  Wash thoroughly with soap and plenty of water.
      Call a physician immediately (70a).
           INGESTION:     Drink 1 or 2 glasses of water and induce vomiting
      by touching back of throat with finger or blunt object.  Do not induce
      vomiting or give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.  Get
      medical attention (70a).
           EYE CONTACT:   Flush with lots of water.  Call a physician
      immediately (70a).
           NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:  If swallowed or absorbed by humans, domestic
      animals or pets, this material may reduce the clotting ability of the
      blood and cause bleeding.  In that case, intravenous and oral
      administration of Vitamin K, combined with blood transfusions are
      indicated as in the case of hemorrhage caused by overdoses of
      bishydroxy coumarin (70a).
           Coumarins, indandiones, and other anticoagulants
      1.   If only a few grains of anticoagulant bait have been ingested by
           an adult or child having no antecedent liver or blood clotting
           disease, treatment is probably unnecessary.
           A.  If there is uncertainty about the amount of bait ingested or
               the general health of the patient, PHYTONADIONE (vitamin K1,
               Mephyton) given orally protects against the anticoagulant
               effect of these rodenticides.  For adults, give 15-25 mg; for
               children under 12, give 5-10 mg.  Alternatively, a colloidal
               solution of phytonadione, Aquamephyton, may be given
               intramuscularly.  For adults, give 5-10 mg; for children under
               12, give 1-5 mg.
               CAUTION:   PHYTONADIONE, specifically, is required.  Neither
                          vitamin K3 (menadione, Hykinone) nor vitamin K4
                          (menadiol) is an antidote for these anticoagulants.
           B.  Whatever the dosage, insure that patients (especially
               children) will be CAREFULLY OBSERVED for 4-5 days after
               ingestion.  The indandiones and the more recently introduced
               anticoagulants have toxic effects apart from anticoagulation
               that are not yet well defined.
      2.   If LARGE AMOUNTS of anticoagulant were ingested in the preceding
           2-3 hours, INDUCE VOMITING with SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2
           glasses of water.  For adults, give 30 ml; for children under 12,
           15 ml.  Following emesis, give 30-50 gm ACTIVATED CHARCOAL in 4-6
           ounces of water to limit absorption of anticoagulant remaining in
           the gut.
      3.   If anticoagulant has been ingested any time in the preceding 15
           days, determination of PROTHROMBIN TIME provides a basis for
           judging the severity of poisoning.
           A.  If the propthrombin time is lengthened, give Aquamephyton,
               intramuscularly:  adult dose, 5-10 mg; child's dose:  1-5 mg.
               Decide dose according to the degree of prothrombin time
               lengthening and, in children, the age and weight of the child.
           B.  Repeat prothrombin time in 24 hours.  If it has not decreased
               from the original value, repeat Aquamephyton dosage.
      4.   If victim shows SYMPTOMS or SIGNS of ANTICOAGULANT POISONING
           (bleeding) in addition to hypoprothrombinemia, administer
           Aquamephyton intramuscularly, up to 25 mg in the adult, and up to
           0.6 mg/kg in children under 12 years.  Phytonadione administration
           may be repeated in 24 hours if bleeding continues.
           A.  In cases of SEVERE BLEEDING, it may be necessary to give
               Aquamephyton intravenously.  This is especially true if the
               bleeding tendency is so severe that intramuscular injection is
               likely to cause hematoma formation.  Dosage is up to 25 mg in
               the adult, up to 0.6 mg/kg in children under 12 years.  Repeat
               this dose in 24 hours if bleeding continues.  Inject at rates
               not exceeding 5% of the total dose per minute.  INTRAVENOUS
               INFUSION of the Aquamephyton DILUTED IN SALINE OR GLUCOSE
               SOLUTION is recommended.  Bleeding is usually controlled in
               3-6 hours.
               CAUTION:   Adverse reactions, some fatal, have occurred from
                          INTRAVENOUS phytonadione injections, even when
                          recommended dosage limits and injection rates were
                          observed.  For this reason, the INTRAVENOUS route
                          should be used ONLY IN cases of SEVERE POISONING.
                          Flushing, dizziness, hypotension, dyspnea, and
                          cyanosis have characterized adverse reactions.
           B.  Antidotal therapy IN cases of SEVERE BLEEDING should be
               supplemented with TRANSFUSIONS of FRESH BLOOD or FRESH FROZEN
               PLASMA.  Use of fresh blood or plasma represents the most
               rapidly effective method of stopping hemorrhage due to these
               anticoagulants.
           C.  Determine PROTHROMBIN TIMES (and hemoglobin concentrations, if
               appropriate) every 6-12 hours to assess effectiveness of
               antihemorrhagic measures.
           D.  When normal blood coagulation is restored, it may be advisable
               to drain large hematomata.
           E.  Ferrous sulfate therapy may be appropriate in the recuperative
               period to rebuild lost erythrocyte mass (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
           To be developed.
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           The pure material is stable but degrades by oxidation when used in
      bait formulations.  It is non-corrosive (21i).
           Chlorophacinone is stable, resistant to weathering and is
      non-corrosive; compatible with cereals, fruits, root and other
      potential bait substrates (62).
                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Fatal if swallowed or absorbed through the
      skin.  Do not inhale mist.  Keep away from humans, domestic animals and
      pets.  Keep out of lakes, streams and ponds.  Do not apply when rain is
      forecasted, or to areas where runoff will occur.  Do not apply when
      weather conditions favor drift.  Do not contaminate water by cleaning
      of equipment or disposal of wastes (70a).
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Ths product can be absorbed through the skin, so
      it should be handled with gloves.  Wear protective mask (70a).
                        IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                      IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                   (800) 424-9300
                       PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8c. Thomson, W.T.  1980.  Agricultural chemicals - book III:
               fumigants, growth regulators, repellents, and rodenticides.
               1981 revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.  182 pp.
      21i. Agriculture Canada, Production and Marketing Branch, Plant
               Products Division.  1972.  Memorandum re:  registration of
               a new pesticide: chlorophacinone.  Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.
      69.  Harding, W. C.  1981-1982.  Pesticide profiles, part three:
               fumigants, repellents, and rodenticides.  Univ. Maryland,
               Coop. Ext. Service Bull. 288, 25 pp.
      70a. Lipha Chemicals, Inc., Chempar Products Division.  1982.
               Specimen label:  Rozol.  New York, NY.
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