Diphacinone (Ramik, Promar) - Chemical Profile 1/85
CHEMICAL name: 2-diphenylacetyl-1,3-indandione (56)
TRADE name(S): Diphacin, Promar, Ramik (69)
FORMULATION(S): Baits containing 50 ppm active material. The
sodium salt is also available to be mixed with water. 1.25% tablet
(8c). Diphacin 110, Diphacin 110A (2%). Diphacin 120, Diphacin 110S,
Promar, Ramik and Ramik Pro are weather (mold and mildew) resistant
rat and mouse baits for both indoor and outdoor use, formulated as
apple-, meat-, and fish-flavored bait pellets. Diphacinone
Concentrate (.1%), P.C.Q. Rat and Mouse Bait, and Rodent Cake (.005%)
which is a mold, moisture resistant paraffinized product (rat and
mouse control for both indoor and outdoor use). It is available in
grain, peanuts, chocolate, fish, and apple flavors; not soluble in H20
TYPE: Rodenticide (anticoagulant)
BASIC PRODUCER(S): Velsicol Chemical Corp.
341 E. Ohio
Chicago, IL 60611
STATUS: Restricted use (all concentrations above 3%).
PRINCIPAL USES: For control of rats, mice, voles, and certain other
rodents, applied in bait form (56).
Used to control mice, prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), ground
squirrels, voles, and other rodents (62).
APPLICATION METHOD(S): Sold packed in blocks and throw packs designed
as self-feeding bait stations. Place in locations readily accessible
by rodents. Pick up and dispose of baits on completion of the rodent
control program (8c).
Important Pests Controlled: Mice, rats and squirrels (8c).
Continuous feeding is necessary for a complete kill. Control
requires approximately two weeks. Experimentally being tested on
sugarcane, forest regeneration, orchards and general crop protection
for rat, mice and squirrel control (8c).
Initial tests have shown Promar bait pellets to give 100% kill.
The same tests showed the bait's acceptance rate at 42.5% for rats.
This is well above the requirement of 25% acceptance with 85% kill for
weatherproof baits and 33% acceptance with 90% kill for
non-weatherproof baits necessary for registration (28d).
Tests conducted by independent laboratories have shown that
diphacinone, the active ingredient in Promar pellets, kills rats in as
few as 3 days with an average 4.7 days. Some other anticoagulants
usually require multiple feedings and 7 to 14 days (28e).
One of the most active anticoagulants. Maintains a long
persistence so does not lose its effectiveness (8c).
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C23 H16 O3 (62)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 340.4 (62)
PHYSICAL STATE: Yellow powder (technical - 95% pure) (62)
MELTING POINT: 145 C (technical) (62)
BOILING POINT: Decomposes at 338 C without boiling (technical)
VAPOR PRESSURE: 13.7 nPa at 25 C (technical) (62)
SOLUBILITY: 0.3 mg/kg water (technical) (62)
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: NA
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: NA
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: NA
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
DERMAL: LD50 = <200 mg/kg, not a primary skin irritant
ORAL: LD50 = 2.3 mg/kg (rat); c. 3 mg/kg (dog) (62).
INHALATION: LC50 (4-hr) = <2 mg/l following exposure to dust
EYES: Not a primary irritant to the rat eye (62).
B. SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
In a 21-day percutaneous toxicity study in rabbits NEL was 0.1
mg/kg daily. A delayed skin sensitization study in guinea-pigs showed
it is neither a skin irritant nor a sensitizer but very toxic, one
guinea-pig dying at 2.5 mg. Chronic LD50 for albino rats is 0.1 mg/kg
daily. It was not mutagenic in the Ames test (62).
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Acute oral LD50 is 3158 mg/kg for mallard duck. LC50 (96-hr) is:
for bluegill 7.6 mg/l; for rainbow trout 2.8 mg/l; for channel catfish
2.1 mg/l. A 56-day secondary poisoning trial with bait (50 mg a.i./kg)
revealed no hazard to sparrow hawks under conditions likely to be
encountered in nature (62).
Only a very slight danger of secondary poisoning to a domestic
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan, which have been
footnoted. This information has been provided in this form for your
convenience and general guidance only. In specific cases, further
consultation and reference may be required and is recommended. This
information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING:
Coumarins, indandiones, and other anticoagulants: In most cases
of ingestion of anticoagulants, victims have remained asymptomatic, due
to the small dosage taken. Even in cases involving ingestion of
substantial amounts of anticoagulant compound (more often medication
than rodenticide), hypoprothrombinemia has occurred without symptoms of
poisoning. Hemorrhage appears only when extraordinary amounts have
been absorbed. In reported cases, the anticoagulants were either taken
deliberately, were absorbed over long periods out of neglect of
elementary hygienic standards, or were ingested by starving indigents
who used quantities of rodent bait as food.
Victims of large doses exhibit HEMATURIA, NOSEBLEED, HEMATOMATA,
BLEEDING GUMS, and MELENA, ABDOMINAL PAIN and BACK PAIN probably
reflect hemorrhage in the abdominal and retroperitoneal tissues.
WEAKNESS occurs as a result of ANEMIA. RENAL COLIC often complicates
severe hematuria. Nasal and gastrointestinal hemorrhages have
occasionally caused death from exsanguination (25).
INGESTION: If swallowed by human beings, this material may
reduce the clotting ability of the blood and cause bleeding. In such
cases, intravenous and oral administration of vitamin K, combined with
blood transfusions, is indicated as in the case of hemorrhage caused by
overdoses of bis-hydroxycoumarin (Dicumarol). IN ALL CASES OF HUMAN
INGESTION IMMEDIATELY NOTIFY A PHYSICIAN (28c).
NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
Coumarins, indandiones, and other anticoagulants
1. If only a few grains of anticoagulant bait have been ingested by
an adult or child having no antecedent liver or blood clotting
disease, treatment is probably unnecessary.
A. If there is uncertainty about the amount of bait ingested or
the general health of the patient, PHYTONADIONE (vitamin K1,
Mephyton) given orally protects against the anticoagulant
effect of these rodenticides. For adults, give 15-25 mg; for
children under 12, give 5-10 mg. Alternatively, a colloidal
solution of phytonadione, Aquamephyton, may be given
intramuscularly. For adults, give 5-10 mg; for children under
12, give 1-5 mg.
CAUTION: PHYTONADIONE, specifically, is required. Neither
vitamin K3 (menadione, Hykinone) nor vitamin K4
(menadiol) is an antidote for these anticoagulants.
B. Whatever the dosage, insure that patients (especially
children) will be CAREFULLY OBSERVED for 4-5 days after
ingestion. The indandiones and the more recently introduced
anticoagulants have toxic effects apart from anticoagulation
that are not yet well defined.
2. If LARGE AMOUNTS of anticoagulant were ingested in the preceding
2-3 hours, INDUCE VOMITING with SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2
glasses of water. For adults, give 30 ml; for children under 12,
15 ml. Following emesis, give 30-50 gm ACTIVATED CHARCOAL in 4-6
ounces of water to limit absorption of anticoagulant remaining in
3. If anticoagulant has been ingested any time in the preceding 15
days, determination of PROTHROMBIN TIME provides a basis for
judging the severity of poisoning.
A. If the prothrombin time is lengthened, give Aquamephyton,
intramuscularly: adult dose, 5-10 mg; child's dose: 1-5 mg.
Decide dose according to the degree of prothrombin time
lengthening and, in children, the age and weight of the child.
B. Repeat prothrombin time in 24 hours. If it has not decreased
from the original value, repeat Aquamephyton dosage.
4. If victim shows SYMPTOMS or SIGNS of ANTICOAGULANT POISONING
(bleeding) in addition to hypoprothrombinemia, administer
Aquamephyton intramuscularly, up to 25 mg in the adult, and up to
0.6 mg/kg in children under 12 years. Phytonadione administration
may be repeated in 24 hours if bleeding continues.
A. In cases of SEVERE BLEEDING, it may be necessary to give
Aquamephyton intravenously. This is especially true if the
bleeding tendency is so severe that intramuscular injection is
likely to cause hematoma formation. Dosage is up to 25 mg in
the adult, up to 0.6 mg/kg in children under 12 years. Repeat
this dose in 24 hours if bleeding continues. Inject at rates
not exceeding 5% of the total dose per minute. INTRAVENOUS
INFUSION of the Aquamephyton DILUTED IN SALINE OR GLUCOSE
SOLUTION is recommended. Bleeding is usually controlled in
CAUTION: Adverse reactions, some fatal, have occurred from
INTRAVENOUS phytonadione injections, even when
recommended dosage limits and injection rates were
observed. For this reason, the INTRAVENOUS route
should be used ONLY IN cases of SEVERE POISONING.
Flushing, dizziness, hypotension, dyspnea, and
cyanosis have characterized adverse reactions.
B. Antidotal therapy IN cases of SEVERE BLEEDING should be
supplemented with TRANSFUSIONS of FRESH BLOOD or FRESH FROZEN
PLASMA. Use of fresh blood or plasma represents the most
rapidly effective method of stopping hemorrhage due to these
C. Determine PROTHROMBIN TIMES (and hemoglobin concentrations, if
appropriate) every 6-12 hours to assess effectiveness of
D. When normal blood coagulation is restored, it may be advisable
to drain large hematomata.
E. Ferrous sulfate therapy may be appropriate in the recuperative
period to rebuild lost erythrocyte mass (25).
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
To be developed.
To be developed.
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
STORAGE AND HANDLING: For best results, keep this product in a closed
container, free from odors which may contaminate the bait and reduce
acceptability. Keep out of the reach of children, pets, wildlife and
domestic animals. Treated baits should be placed in locations not
accessible to children, pets, wildlife and domestic animals, or in
tamperproof bait boxes. Do not contaminate water by disposal of wastes
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
X. LITERATURE CITED
8c. Thomson, W.T. 1980. Agricultural chemicals - book III:
fumigants, growth regulators, repellents, and rodenticides.
1981 revised ed. Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA. 182 pp.
25. Morgan, D.P. 1982. Recognition and management of pesticide
poisonings, 3rd ed. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC. 120 pp.
28c. Velsicol Chemical Corporation. 1982. Specimen label: Ramik
green bait packs. Chicago, IL.
28d. Velsicol Chemical Corporation. 1978. Information sheet on Promar
rodenticide pellets. Chicago, IL.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
62. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 7th ed. 1983. C.R.
Worthing, ed. The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
England. 695 pp.
69. Harding, W. C. 1981-1982. Pesticide profiles, part three:
fumigants, repellents, and rodenticides. Univ. Maryland,
Coop. Ext. Service Bull. 288, 25 pp.