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Diphacinone (Ramik, Promar) - Chemical Profile 1/85

                                    diphacinone
      CHEMICAL name:      2-diphenylacetyl-1,3-indandione (56)
      TRADE name(S):      Diphacin, Promar, Ramik (69)
      FORMULATION(S):  Baits containing 50 ppm active material.  The
      sodium salt is also available to be mixed with water.  1.25% tablet
      (8c).  Diphacin 110, Diphacin 110A (2%).  Diphacin 120, Diphacin 110S,
      Promar, Ramik and Ramik Pro are weather (mold and mildew) resistant
      rat and mouse baits for both indoor and outdoor use, formulated as
      apple-, meat-, and fish-flavored bait pellets.  Diphacinone
      Concentrate (.1%), P.C.Q.  Rat and Mouse Bait, and Rodent Cake (.005%)
      which is a mold, moisture resistant paraffinized product (rat and
      mouse control for both indoor and outdoor use).  It is available in
      grain, peanuts, chocolate, fish, and apple flavors; not soluble in H20
      (58).
      TYPE:               Rodenticide (anticoagulant)
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Velsicol Chemical Corp.
                          341 E. Ohio
                          Chicago, IL 60611
      STATUS:             Restricted use (all concentrations above 3%).
      PRINCIPAL USES:  For control of rats, mice, voles, and certain other
      rodents, applied in bait form (56).
           Used to control mice, prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), ground
      squirrels, voles, and other rodents (62).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  Sold packed in blocks and throw packs designed
      as self-feeding bait stations.  Place in locations readily accessible
      by rodents.  Pick up and dispose of baits on completion of the rodent
      control program (8c).
                                    I.  EFFICACY
      Important Pests Controlled:  Mice, rats and squirrels (8c).
           Continuous feeding is necessary for a complete kill.  Control
      requires approximately two weeks.  Experimentally being tested on
      sugarcane, forest regeneration, orchards and general crop protection
      for rat, mice and squirrel control (8c).
           Initial tests have shown Promar bait pellets to give 100% kill.
      The same tests showed the bait's acceptance rate at 42.5% for rats.
      This is well above the requirement of 25% acceptance with 85% kill for
      weatherproof baits and 33% acceptance with 90% kill for
      non-weatherproof baits necessary for registration (28d).
           Tests conducted by independent laboratories have shown that
      diphacinone, the active ingredient in Promar pellets, kills rats in as
      few as 3 days with an average 4.7 days.  Some other anticoagulants
      usually require multiple feedings and 7 to 14 days (28e).
           One of the most active anticoagulants.  Maintains a long
      persistence so does not lose its effectiveness (8c).
                              II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C23 H16 O3 (62)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   340.4 (62)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Yellow powder (technical - 95% pure) (62)
      MELTING POINT:      145 C (technical) (62)
      BOILING POINT:      Decomposes at 338 C without boiling (technical)
                          (62)
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     13.7 nPa at 25 C (technical) (62)
      SOLUBILITY:         0.3 mg/kg water (technical) (62)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  NA
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      TOXICOLOGY
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  LD50 = <200 mg/kg, not a primary skin irritant
                               (rat) (62).
               ORAL:  LD50 = 2.3 mg/kg (rat); c. 3 mg/kg (dog) (62).
               INHALATION:  LC50 (4-hr) = <2 mg/l following exposure to dust
                            (rat) (62).
               EYES:  Not a primary irritant to the rat eye (62).
           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
           In a 21-day percutaneous toxicity study in rabbits NEL was 0.1
      mg/kg daily.  A delayed skin sensitization study in guinea-pigs showed
      it is neither a skin irritant nor a sensitizer but very toxic, one
      guinea-pig dying at 2.5 mg.  Chronic LD50 for albino rats is 0.1 mg/kg
      daily.  It was not mutagenic in the Ames test (62).
                         IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
           Acute oral LD50 is 3158 mg/kg for mallard duck.  LC50 (96-hr) is:
      for bluegill 7.6 mg/l; for rainbow trout 2.8 mg/l; for channel catfish
      2.1 mg/l.  A 56-day secondary poisoning trial with bait (50 mg a.i./kg)
      revealed no hazard to sparrow hawks under conditions likely to be
      encountered in nature (62).
           Only a very slight danger of secondary poisoning to a domestic
      animal (8c).
                       V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
      original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
      of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan, which have been
      footnoted.  This information has been provided in this form for your
      convenience and general guidance only.  In specific cases, further
      consultation and reference may be required and is recommended.  This
      information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
      review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
      trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING:
           Coumarins, indandiones, and other anticoagulants:  In most cases
      of ingestion of anticoagulants, victims have remained asymptomatic, due
      to the small dosage taken.  Even in cases involving ingestion of
      substantial amounts of anticoagulant compound (more often medication
      than rodenticide), hypoprothrombinemia has occurred without symptoms of
      poisoning.  Hemorrhage appears only when extraordinary amounts have
      been absorbed.  In reported cases, the anticoagulants were either taken
      deliberately, were absorbed over long periods out of neglect of
      elementary hygienic standards, or were ingested by starving indigents
      who used quantities of rodent bait as food.
           Victims of large doses exhibit HEMATURIA, NOSEBLEED, HEMATOMATA,
      BLEEDING GUMS, and MELENA, ABDOMINAL PAIN and BACK PAIN probably
      reflect hemorrhage in the abdominal and retroperitoneal tissues.
      WEAKNESS occurs as a result of ANEMIA.  RENAL COLIC often complicates
      severe hematuria.  Nasal and gastrointestinal hemorrhages have
      occasionally caused death from exsanguination (25).
           INGESTION:     If swallowed by human beings, this material may
      reduce the clotting ability of the blood and cause bleeding.  In such
      cases, intravenous and oral administration of vitamin K, combined with
      blood transfusions, is indicated as in the case of hemorrhage caused by
      overdoses of bis-hydroxycoumarin (Dicumarol).  IN ALL CASES OF HUMAN
      INGESTION IMMEDIATELY NOTIFY A PHYSICIAN (28c).
      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
           Coumarins, indandiones, and other anticoagulants
      1.   If only a few grains of anticoagulant bait have been ingested by
           an adult or child having no antecedent liver or blood clotting
           disease, treatment is probably unnecessary.
           A.  If there is uncertainty about the amount of bait ingested or
               the general health of the patient, PHYTONADIONE (vitamin K1,
               Mephyton) given orally protects against the anticoagulant
               effect of these rodenticides.  For adults, give 15-25 mg; for
               children under 12, give 5-10 mg.  Alternatively, a colloidal
               solution of phytonadione, Aquamephyton, may be given
               intramuscularly.  For adults, give 5-10 mg; for children under
               12, give 1-5 mg.
               CAUTION:   PHYTONADIONE, specifically, is required.  Neither
                          vitamin K3 (menadione, Hykinone) nor vitamin K4
                          (menadiol) is an antidote for these anticoagulants.
           B.  Whatever the dosage, insure that patients (especially
               children) will be CAREFULLY OBSERVED for 4-5 days after
               ingestion.  The indandiones and the more recently introduced
               anticoagulants have toxic effects apart from anticoagulation
               that are not yet well defined.
      2.   If LARGE AMOUNTS of anticoagulant were ingested in the preceding
           2-3 hours, INDUCE VOMITING with SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2
           glasses of water.  For adults, give 30 ml; for children under 12,
           15 ml.  Following emesis, give 30-50 gm ACTIVATED CHARCOAL in 4-6
           ounces of water to limit absorption of anticoagulant remaining in
           the gut.
      3.   If anticoagulant has been ingested any time in the preceding 15
           days, determination of PROTHROMBIN TIME provides a basis for
           judging the severity of poisoning.
           A.  If the prothrombin time is lengthened, give Aquamephyton,
               intramuscularly:  adult dose, 5-10 mg; child's dose:  1-5 mg.
               Decide dose according to the degree of prothrombin time
               lengthening and, in children, the age and weight of the child.
           B.  Repeat prothrombin time in 24 hours.  If it has not decreased
               from the original value, repeat Aquamephyton dosage.
      4.   If victim shows SYMPTOMS or SIGNS of ANTICOAGULANT POISONING
           (bleeding) in addition to hypoprothrombinemia, administer
           Aquamephyton intramuscularly, up to 25 mg in the adult, and up to
           0.6 mg/kg in children under 12 years.  Phytonadione administration
           may be repeated in 24 hours if bleeding continues.
           A.  In cases of SEVERE BLEEDING, it may be necessary to give
               Aquamephyton intravenously.  This is especially true if the
               bleeding tendency is so severe that intramuscular injection is
               likely to cause hematoma formation.  Dosage is up to 25 mg in
               the adult, up to 0.6 mg/kg in children under 12 years.  Repeat
               this dose in 24 hours if bleeding continues.  Inject at rates
               not exceeding 5% of the total dose per minute.  INTRAVENOUS
               INFUSION of the Aquamephyton DILUTED IN SALINE OR GLUCOSE
               SOLUTION is recommended.  Bleeding is usually controlled in
               3-6 hours.
               CAUTION:   Adverse reactions, some fatal, have occurred from
                          INTRAVENOUS phytonadione injections, even when
                          recommended dosage limits and injection rates were
                          observed.  For this reason, the INTRAVENOUS route
                          should be used ONLY IN cases of SEVERE POISONING.
                          Flushing, dizziness, hypotension, dyspnea, and
                          cyanosis have characterized adverse reactions.
           B.  Antidotal therapy IN cases of SEVERE BLEEDING should be
               supplemented with TRANSFUSIONS of FRESH BLOOD or FRESH FROZEN
               PLASMA.  Use of fresh blood or plasma represents the most
               rapidly effective method of stopping hemorrhage due to these
               anticoagulants.
           C.  Determine PROTHROMBIN TIMES (and hemoglobin concentrations, if
               appropriate) every 6-12 hours to assess effectiveness of
               antihemorrhagic measures.
           D.  When normal blood coagulation is restored, it may be advisable
               to drain large hematomata.
           E.  Ferrous sulfate therapy may be appropriate in the recuperative
               period to rebuild lost erythrocyte mass (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
           To be developed.
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           To be developed.
                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  For best results, keep this product in a closed
      container, free from odors which may contaminate the bait and reduce
      acceptability.  Keep out of the reach of children, pets, wildlife and
      domestic animals.  Treated baits should be placed in locations not
      accessible to children, pets, wildlife and domestic animals, or in
      tamperproof bait boxes.  Do not contaminate water by disposal of wastes
      (28c).
                        IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                      IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                   (800) 424-9300
                       PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8c. Thomson, W.T.  1980.  Agricultural chemicals - book III:
               fumigants, growth regulators, repellents, and rodenticides.
               1981 revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.  182 pp.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      28c. Velsicol Chemical Corporation.  1982.  Specimen label:  Ramik
               green bait packs.  Chicago, IL.
      28d. Velsicol Chemical Corporation.  1978.  Information sheet on Promar
               rodenticide pellets.  Chicago, IL.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.
      69.  Harding, W. C.  1981-1982.  Pesticide profiles, part three:
               fumigants, repellents, and rodenticides.  Univ. Maryland,
               Coop. Ext. Service Bull. 288, 25 pp.
      1/18/85