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Naphthalene - Chemical Profile 1/85


      CHEMICAL name:      Naphthalene (62)

      TRADE name(S):      Many product trade names (69)

      FORMULATION(S):     Flakes, balls, cakes, dusts, pressurized liquid,
                          pelletized tablets and ready-to-use liquid.  May be
                          formulated with one or more of the following:  oil
                          of lemongrass, dried blood, thiram, nicotine,
                          thymol, etc. (69).

      TYPE:               Insecticide - repellent/fumigant

      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Several (69)

      STATUS:             General use

      PRINCIPAL USES:     Long known but now little used for the control of
      clothes moths and carpet beetles.  It has been used also as a
      greenhouse fumigant and against gladiolus thrips.  Formulated with
      other ingredients, it has been sold for application to livestock and
      poultry as a lice powder (56).  It is also used as a fumigant against
      soil fungi, but is rapidly decomposed by soil organisms (62).

                                    I.  EFFICACY

           Its effectiveness as a household fumigant against clothes moths
      has been questioned (62).
           Pests repelled:  Clothing moths, carpet beetles, bats, cats, dogs,
      birds, squirrels, rabbits, pocket gophers (69).

                              II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C10 H8 (62)

      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   129.2 (62)

      PHYSICAL STATE:     Colorless flaky crystals (pure compound) (62)

      ODOR:               Odor of mothballs (14)

      MELTING POINT:      80 C (pure compound) (62)

      BOILING POINT:      218 C (pure compound) (62)

      VAPOR PRESSURE:     6.5 Pa at 20 C (pure compound) (62)

      SOLUBILITY:         30 mg/l water at room temperature (pure compound)

                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION

      OSHA STANDARD:  10 ppm (50 mg/m3) averaged over an eight-hour work
                      shift (14).


      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 10 ppm, 50
                          mg/m3; STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) = 15 ppm,
                          75 mg/m3 (15c).


           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY

               DERMAL:  LD50 = 2,500 mg/kg (69).
                        Napthalene on the skin may cause hypersensitivity
                        dermatitis; chronic dermatitis is rare (14).

               ORAL:    LD50 = 2,200 mg/kg (rat) (62).

               INHALATION:  Inhalation may cause abdominal cramps, nausea,
      vomiting, diarrhea, headache, tiredness, confusion, painful urination,
      and bloody or dark urine (14).

               EYES:  The vapor causes eye irritation at 15 ppm; eye contact
      with the solid may result in conjunctivitis, superficial injury to the
      cornea, chorioretinitis, scotoma, and diminished visual acuity (14).


           Cataracts and ocular irritation have been reproduced
      experimentally in animals and have been described in humans; of 21
      workers exposed to high concentrations of fume or vapor for 5 years, 8
      had peripheral lens opacities; in other studies no abnormalities of the
      eyes have been detected in workers exposed to naphthalene for several
      years (14).
           Repeated skin exposure to naphthalene may cause an allergic rash.
      Repeated exposure may cause cataracts (14).

                         IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

           To be developed.


           The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
      original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
      of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan, which have been
      footnoted.  This information has been provided in this form for your
      convenience and general guidance only.  In specific cases, further
      consultation and reference may be required and is recommended.  This
      information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
      review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
      trained professional.

           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.

           SYMPTOMS:  Inhalation or ingestion of naphthalene may cause
      abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, tiredness,
      confusion, painful urination, and bloody or dark urine.  Swallowing
      large amounts may cause convulsions or coma.  Inhalation, ingestion,
      and possibly skin absorption of naphthalene may cause destruction of
      red blood cells with anemia, fever, yellow jaundice, bloody urine,
      kidney and liver damage.  Naphthalene, on contact with the eyes, has
      produced irritation.  Naphthalene, on contact with the skin, has
      produced skin irritation (14).

           SKIN CONTACT:  If molten naphthalene gets on the skin, immediately
      flush the skin with large amounts of water.  Get medical attention
      immediately.  If naphthalene or liquids containing naphthalene get on
      the skin, promptly wash the contaminsted skin using soap or mild
      detergent and water.  If naphthalene or liquids containing naphthalene
      penetrate through the clothing, remove the clothing immediately and
      wash the skin using soap or mild detergent and water.  If irritation
      persists after washing, get medical attention (14).

           INGESTION:  When naphthalene has been swallowed and the person is
      conscious, give the person large quantities of water imemdiately.
      After the water has been swallowed, try to get the person to vomit by
      having him touch the back of his throat with his finger.  Do not make
      an unconscious person vomit.  Get medical attention immediately (14).

           INHALATION:  If a person breathes in large amounts of naphthalene,
      move the exposed person to fresh air at once (14).

           EYE CONTACT:   If naphthalene or liquids containing naphthalene
      get into the eyes, wash eyes immediately with large amounts of water,
      lifting the lower and upper lids occasionally.  If irritation is
      present after washing, get medical attention.  Contact lenses should
      not be worn when working with this chemical (14).

                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION

      GENERAL:  It is flammable, flash point 79 C (open cup), 88 C (closed
      cup) but otherwise stable (62).  Toxic gases and vapors (such as dense
      acrid smoke and carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving
      naphthalene (14).

      EXTINGUISHER TYPE:  Carbon dioxide, dry chemical, foam (14).

                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY

           Contact with strong oxidizers may cause fires and explosions.
      Melted naphthalene will attack some forms of plastics, rubber, and
      coatings (14).

                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES

      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Avoid prolonged breathing of vapors.  Avoid
      contaminating feed and foods (69).

      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Employees should be provided with and required to
      use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and
      other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent repeated or
      prolonged skin contact with naphthalene or liquids containing
      naphthalene.  Employees should be provided with and required to use
      dust- and splash-proof safety goggles where solid naphthalene or
      liquids containing naphthalene may contact the eyes (14).



                                     Minimum Respiratory Protection*
      Condition                          Required Above 10 ppm

      Particulate and Vapor

      500 ppm or less          A chemical cartridge respirator with a full
                               facepiece, organic vapor cartridge(s), and
                               dust filter.

                               A gas mask with a chin-style or a front- or
                               back-mounted organic vapor canister and dust

                               Any supplied-air respirator with a full
                               facepiece, helmet, or hood.

                               Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a
                               full facepiece.

      Greater than 500 ppm or  Self-contained breathing apparatus with a full
      entry and escape from    facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other
      unknown concentrations   positive pressure mode.

                               A combination respirator which includes a Type
                               C supplied-air respirator with a full
                               facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other
                               positive pressure or continuous-flow mode and
                               an auxiliary self-contained breathing
                               apparatus operated in pressure-demand or other
                               positive pressure mode.

      Fire Fighting            Self-contained breathing apparatus with a full
                               facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other
                               positive pressure mode.

      Escape                   Any gas mask providing protection against
                               organic vapors and particulates.

                               Any escape self-contained breathing apparatus.

      * Only NIOSH-approved or MSHA-approved equipment should be used (14).

                        IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS

                      IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                   (800) 424-9300

      Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be
      restricted from areas of spills until cleanup has been completed.

      If naphthalene is spilled, the following steps should be taken:

      1.  Ventilate area of spill.
      2.  For small quantities, sweep onto paper or other suitable material,
          place in an appropriate container and burn in a safe place (such as
          a fume hood).  Large quantities may be reclaimed; however, if this
          is not practical, dissolve in a flammable solvent (such as alcohol)
          and atomize in a suitable combustion chamber.

      Waste disposal methods:

      Naphthalene may be disposed of:

      1.  By making packages of naphthalene in paper or other flammable
          material and burning in a suitable combustion chamber.
      2.  By dissolving napthalene in a flammable solvent (such as alcohol)
          and atomizing in a suitable combustion chamber (14).

                               X.  LITERATURE CITED

      14.  U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute
               for Occuptational Safety and Health.  1981.  Occupational
               health guidelines for chemical hazards.  F. W. Mackinson, R.
               S. Stricoff, L. J. Partridge, Jr., and A. D. Little, Inc.,
               eds.  DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 81-123.  Washington, DC.

      15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1984.
               TLVs:  threshold limit values for chemical substances and
               physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
               indices with intended changes for 1984-85.  Cincinnati, OH.
               116 pp.

      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.

      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.

      69.  Harding, W. C.  1981-1982.  Pesticide profiles, part three:
               fumigants, repellents, and rodenticides.  Univ. Maryland,
               Coop. Ext. Service Bull. 288, 25 pp.