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paradichlorobenzene (PDB) Chemical Profile 1/85

      CHEMICAL name:      1,4-dichlorobenzene (56)
      TRADE name(S):      PDB, Paracide (56)
      FORMULATION(S):     Available as pure crystals; crystalline material
                          pressed into various forms; solutions in volatile
                          solvents or in an oil suspension to apply at base
                          of trees in peach tree borer control (56).
      TYPE:               Repellent-fumigant
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  PPG Industries
                          1 Gateway Center
                          Pittsburgh, PA 15272
      STATUS:             General use
      PRINCIPAL USES:  Tobacco as a plant bed treatment for disease
      control.  It is also used as a fumigant for clothes moths in fabric,
      and for ant control.  Used on apricots, cherries, nectarines, peaches
      and plums for insect control.  Also used as a fumigant and repellent in
      combination with other materials to control squirrels, moles, gophers,
      and rats and to repel cats and dogs (8c).
           Widely used in the production of low pressure aerosols because of
      its insecticidal action and its properties as a solvent.  Used in
      tobacco seed beds for blue mold control.. Used industrially to control
      mildew and molds on leather and fabrics in closed containers.  Used as
      a moth repellent in the form of moth balls.  Used to repel cats and
      dogs both indoor and outdoors (8c).
                                    I.  EFFICACY
      Important Pests Controlled:  Soil diseases, peach tree borer, clothes
      moths, root aphid, centipedes, ants, wire worms, potato weevil and a
      few other soil insects (8c).
                              II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C6 H4 Cl2 (3)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   147 (14)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Colorless solid (14)
      ODOR:               Mothball-like odor (14)
      MELTING POINT:      53 C (127 F) (14)
      BOILING POINT:      174 C (345 F)/760 mm Hg (14)
      VAPOR PRESSURE:     0.4 mm Hg at 20 C (68 F) (14); volatile-sublimes
                          readily (3).
      SOLUBILITY:         0.008 g/100 g water at 20 C (68 F) (14).
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  75 ppm (450 mg/m3) averaged over an eight-hour work
                      shift (14).
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  TWA (Time Weighted Average) = 75 ppm, 450
                          mg/m3; STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) = 110 ppm,
                          675 mg/m3 (15c).
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  LD50 = 6,000 mg/kg.  May be irritating to the skin
               ORAL:    LD50 = 500 mg/kg (rat) (56).
               INHALATION:  p-Dichlorobenzene irritates the upper respiratory
                            tract (14).
               EYES:    p-Dichlorobenzene vapor irritates the eyes (14).
           A group of animals repeatedly exposed to 798 ppm developed eye
      irritation, marked tremors, weakness, and loss of weight; some died.
      Reversible, nonspecific changes in the eye grounds were noted in
      rabbits, but there were no lens changes; other effects were
      centrolobular necrosis of the liver and mild damage to the lungs and
      kidneys.  In five cases of intoxication from exposure to
      p-dichlorobenzene used as a mothproofing agent, one person with only
      moderate exposure complained of severe headache, periorbital swelling,
      and profuse rhinitis, which subsided 24 hours after cessation of
      exposure.  The other four persons who had more prolonged exposure
      developed anorexia, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and hepatic necrosis
      with jaundice; two died, and another developed cirrhosis.  In 8 workers
      exposed for an average of 4.8 years (range, 8 months to 25 years) to
      p-dichlorobenzene at levels of 10 to 725 ppm, there was no evidence of
      hematologic effects; painful irritation of the eyes and nose was
      recorded at levels between 50 and 80 ppm, and it was severe at 160 ppm.
           A case of allergic purpura induced by p-dichlorobenzene has been
      reported.  In a study of workers engaged in synthesizing or otherwise
      handling p-dichorobenzene, it was concluded that urinary excretion of
      2,5-dichlorophenol (a metabolite of p-dichlorobenzene) can serve as an
      index of exposure.  Published studies of tests for carcinogenicity are
      considered to have been too short in duration and involved too few
      animals to have any significance (14).
                         IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
           Toxic to roots, seeds and seedlings as soil disinfectant (69).
      Improper use may result in serious injury to trees (8c).
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
      original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
      of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan, which have been
      footnoted.  This information has been provided in this form for your
      convenience and general guidance only.  In specific cases, further
      consultation and reference may be required and is recommended.  This
      information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
      review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
      trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      KNOWN OR SUSPECTED ADVERSE EFFECTS:  Mild respiratory irritant and
      hepatotoxic (25).
           Exposure to p-dichlorobenzene may cause irritation of the eyes,
      nose, and throat.  It may also cause headache, swelling around the eyes,
      and runny nose.  In addition, it may cause loss of appetite, nausea,
      vomiting, weight loss, and liver damage with yellow jaundice and
      death.  Particles of solid p-dichlorobenzene in contact with eyes may
      cause pain.  The solid material also produces a burning sensation when
      held in contact with the skin with slight irritation.  Warm fumes or
      strong solutions of p-dichlorobenzene may irritate the skin slightly on
      prolonged or repeated contact.  Red blotching of the skin due to
      allergy to p-dichlorobenzene may occur (14).
           SKIN CONTACT:  WASH contaminated SKIN with soap and water (25).
           INGESTION:  INGESTIONS of SMALL amounts (less than 10 mg/kg
      body weight) occurring less than an hour before tretment, are probably
      best treated by:
      A.   SYRUP OF IPECAC, followed by 1-2 glasses of water.  Dose for
           adults and children over 12 years:  30 ml.  Dose for children
           under 12 years:  15 ml.
      B.   ACTIVATED CHARCOAL - Administer 30-50 gm as a slurry in tap water,
           after vomiting stops.
      C.   SODIUM OR MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg in tap water, as a cathartic
           INHALATION:  If a person breathes in large amounts of
      p-dichlorobenzene, move the exposed person to fresh air at once.  If
      breathing has stopped, perform artificial respiration.  Keep the
      affected person warm and at rest.  Get medical attention as soon as
      possible (14).
           EYE CONTACT:   FLUSH contaminated EYES with copious amounts of
      fresh water for 15 minutes (25).
      INGESTIONS of LARGE amounts (more than 10 mg/kg) occurring less than an
      hour before treatment, should probably be treated by gastric lavage:
      A.   INTUBATE stomach and ASPIRATE contents.
      B.   LAVAGE stomach with slurry of ACTIVATED CHARCOAL IN 0.9% saline.
           Leave 30-50 gm activated charcoal in the stomach before
           withdrawing tube.
      C.   SODIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg in tap water, as a cathartic.
           CAUTION:  Hydrocarbons (kerosene, petroleum distillates) are
                     included in some formulations of these chemicals.
                     Ingestion of very LARGE AMOUNTS may cause CNS
                     depression.  In this case, IPECAC IS CONTRAINDICATED.
                     Also, gastric intubation incurs a risk of HYDROCARBON
                     PNEUMONITIS.  For this reason observe the following
                     (1)  If the victim is unconscious or obtunded and
                          facilities are at hand, insert an ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE
                          (cuffed, if available) prior to gastric intubation.
                     (2)  Keep victim's head BELOW LEVEL OF STOMACH during
                          intubation and lavage (Trendelenburg, or left
                          lateral decubitus, with head of table tipped
                          downward).  Keep victim's head turned to the left.
                     (3)  ASPIRATE PHARYNX as regularly as possible to remove
                          gagged or vomited stomach contents.
      INGESTIONS occurring MORE THAN an HOUR before treatment are probably
      best treated only by ACTIVATED CHARCOAL, 30-50 gm, and SODIUM or
      MAGNESIUM SULFATE, 0.25 gm/kg, as described above.
      There are no specific antidotes for these chemicals.  Because
      manifestations of toxicity do occasionally occur in peculiarly
      predisposed individuals, MAINTAIN CONTACT with victim for at least 72
      hours so that unexpected adverse effects can be treated promptly (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
      GENERAL:  Flash point:  65.6 C (150 F) (closed up).  Hazardous
      decomposition products:  Toxic gases and vapors (such as hydrogen
      chloride and carbon monoxide) may be released in a fire involving
      p-dichlorobenzene (14).
      EXTINGUISHER TYPE:  Foam, carbon dioxide, dry chemical (14).
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
           No incompatibilities.  Liquid p-dichlorobenzene will attack some
      forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings (14).  Noncorrosive (8c).
                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Keep containers tightly closed to avoid
      vaporation (69).
      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:  Employees should be provided with and required to
      use impervious clothing, gloves, face shields (eight-inch minimum), and
      other appropriate protective clothing necessary to prevent repeated or
      prolonged skin contact with solid paticles or vapors from the surface
      of hot p-dichlorobenzene.  Employees should be provided with and
      required to use dust- and splash-proof safety goggles where
      p-dichlorobenzene or liquids containing p-dichlorobenzene may contact
      the eyes (14).
                                         Minimum Respiratory Protection*
      Condition                              Required Above 75 ppm
      Vapor Concentration
      1,000 ppm or less              A chemical cartridge respirator with a
                                     full facepiece, an organic vapor
                                     cartridge(s), and dust filter.
                                     A gas mask with a chin-style or a front-
                                     or back-mounted organic vapor canister
                                     and dust filter.
                                     Any supplied-air respirator with a full
                                     facepiece, helmet, or hood.
                                     Any self-contained breathing apparatus
                                     with a full facepiece.
      Greater than 1,000 ppm or      Self-contained breathing apparatus with
      entry and escape from          a full facepiece operated in
      unknown concentrations         pressure-demand or other positive
                                     pressure mode.
                                     A combination respirator which includes
                                     a Type C supplied-air respirator with a
                                     full facepiece operated in
                                     pressure-demand or other positive
                                     pressure or continuous-flow mode and an
                                     auxiliary self-contained breathing
                                     apparatus operated in pressure-demand or
                                     other positive pressure mode.
      Fire Fighting                  Self-contained breathing apparatus with
                                     a full facepiece operated in
                                     pressure-demand or other positive
                                     pressure mode.
      Escape                         Any gas mask providing protection
                                     against organic vapors and particulates.
                                     Any escape self-contained breathing
      * Only NIOSH-approved or MSHA-approved equipment should be used (14).
                        IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                      IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                   (800) 424-9300

           Persons not wearing protective equipment and clothing should be
      restricted from areas of spills until cleanup has been completed.
           If p-dichlorobenzene is spilled, the following steps should be
      1.   Ventilate area of spill.
      2.   For small quantities, sweep onto paper or other suitable material,
           place in an appropriate container and burn in a safe place (such as
           a fume hood).  Large quantities may be reclaimed; however, if this
           is not practical, dispose in a suitable combustion chamber
           equipped with an appropriate effluent gas cleaning device as in
           below or desposit in a secured sanitary landfill.
      Waste disposal methods:
      p-Dichlorobnezene may be disposed of:
      1.   By making packages of p-dichlorobenzene in paper or other
           flammable material and burning in a suitable combustion chamber
           equipped with an appropriate effluent gas cleaning device.
      2.   By dissolving p-dichlorobenzene in a flammable solvent (such as
           alcohol) and atomizing in a suitable combustion chamber equipped
           with an appropriate effluent gas cleaning device (14).
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       3.  The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 8th ed.  1971.  VanNostrand
               Reihnold Co., New York, NY.  971 pp.
       8c. Thomson, W.T.  1980.  Agricultural chemicals - book III:
               fumigants, growth regulators, repellents, and rodenticides.
               1981 revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.  182 pp.
      14.  U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute
               for Occuptational Safety and Health.  1981.  Occupational
               health guidelines for chemical hazards.  F. W. Mackinson, R.
               S. Stricoff, L. J. Partridge, Jr., and A. D. Little, Inc.,
               eds.  DHHS (NIOSH) Publ. No. 81-123.  Washington, DC.
      15c. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.  1984.
               TLVs:  threshold limit values for chemical substances and
               physical agents in the work environment and biological exposure
               indices with intended changes for 1984-85.  Cincinnati, OH.
               116 pp.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      69.  Harding, W. C.  1981-1982.  Pesticide profiles, part three:
               fumigants, repellents, and rodenticides.  Univ. Maryland,
               Coop. Ext. Service Bull. 288, 25 pp.