Scilliroside (Red Squill, Rodine) - Chemical Profile 1/85
CHEMICAL name: 3-B-(B-D-glucopyranosyl)-17B-(2-oxo-2H-pyran-5-yl)-
14B-androst-4-ene-6B,8,14-triol 6-acetate (IUPAC,
BOTANICAL COMPOSITION: The powdered bulbs of Urginea (Scilla)
maritima, a perennial growing in the Mediterranean area. The most
toxic of several glycosides in red squill is scilliroside (56).
TRADE name(S): Dethdiet, Rodine (56)
FORMULATION(S): Powder (Dethdiet) and liquid extract (Rodine) (56)
BASIC PRODUCER(S): Penick Corp.
1050 Wall St. West
Lyndhurst, NJ 07071
PRINCIPAL USES: Red squill is specific for rats and nontoxic to
other warm-blooded animals when used in recommended dosages. The
specific toxicity to rats is due to their inability to vomit while the
product induces vomiting in other animal species (56).
APPLICATION METHOD(S): The squill is mixed in baits. As in many other
rodenticide operations, a prebaiting procedure is usually recommended,
using only the bait base (56). Applied at a 10% concentration in baits
composed of meat, fish and cereals or other type baits (8c).
Important Pests Controlled: Norway rats. Less effective against roof
A single dose is usually all that is necessary until reinfestation
occurs. Effectiveness is lost in storage. Excellent for use in quickly
reducing Norway rat populations prior to the use of anticoagulant baits
II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR FORMULA: C32 H44 O12 (62)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 620.7 (62)
PHYSICAL STATE: Scilliroside forms hydrated prisms (from aqueous
methanol) which lose c. 8% m/m in vacuo giving a
MELTING POINT: 168-170 C (decomposing at 200 C) (scilliroside)
SOLUBILITY: Sparingly soluble in water (scilliroside) (62)
III. HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
OSHA STANDARD: NA
NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: NA
ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT: NA
A. ACUTE TOXICITY
DERMAL: Irritating to the skin (8c).
ORAL: LD50 = 0.7 mg/kg (male rat); 0.43 mg/kg (female
B. SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
To be developed.
IV. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Pigs and cats survived 16 mg/kg, fowls survived 400 mg/kg (62).
V. EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P. Morgan, which have been
footnoted. This information has been provided in this form for your
convenience and general guidance only. In specific cases, further
consultation and reference may be required and is recommended. This
information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING: Nausea and VOMITING are
the predominant effects. In the unlikely event that significant
amounts of glycosides are absorbed, cardiac arrhythmias and slowing
might be expected. Convulsions have not been observed in humans as
they have in rats (25).
NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
1. Significant toxicity is not expected from this agent. If, for some
reason, a significant amount is retained in the stomach, remove it
by gastric INTUBATION, ASPIRATION, AND LAVAGE, followed by 0.5
gm/kg SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE in 1-6 ounces water.
2. Monitor ELECTROCARDIOGRAM for arrhythmias and conduction
disturbances characteristic of digitalis (25).
VI. FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
To be developed.
To be developed.
VIII. PROTECTIVE MEASURES
STORAGE AND HANDLING: Store only in metal or glass containers (8c).
IX. PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
X. LITERATURE CITED
8c. Thomson, W.T. 1980. Agricultural chemicals - book III:
fumigants, growth regulators, repellents, and rodenticides.
1981 revised ed. Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA. 182 pp.
25. Morgan, D.P. 1982. Recognition and management of pesticide
poisonings, 3rd ed. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC. 120 pp.
56. Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed. 1984. R. T. Meister, G. L.
Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds. Meister
Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
62. The Pesticide Manual: A World Compendium, 7th ed. 1983. C.R.
Worthing, ed. The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
England. 695 pp.