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Scilliroside (Red Squill, Rodine) - Chemical Profile 1/85

                                     red squill
      CHEMICAL name:      3-B-(B-D-glucopyranosyl)-17B-(2-oxo-2H-pyran-5-yl)-
                          14B-androst-4-ene-6B,8,14-triol 6-acetate (IUPAC,
                          B=beta) (62).
      BOTANICAL COMPOSITION:  The powdered bulbs of Urginea (Scilla)
      maritima, a perennial growing in the Mediterranean area.  The most
      toxic of several glycosides in red squill is scilliroside (56).
      TRADE name(S):      Dethdiet, Rodine (56)
      FORMULATION(S):     Powder (Dethdiet) and liquid extract (Rodine) (56)
      TYPE:               Rodenticide
      BASIC PRODUCER(S):  Penick Corp.
                          1050 Wall St. West
                          Lyndhurst, NJ 07071
      PRINCIPAL USES:  Red squill is specific for rats and nontoxic to
      other warm-blooded animals when used in recommended dosages.  The
      specific toxicity to rats is due to their inability to vomit while the
      product induces vomiting in other animal species (56).
      APPLICATION METHOD(S):  The squill is mixed in baits.  As in many other
      rodenticide operations, a prebaiting procedure is usually recommended,
      using only the bait base (56).  Applied at a 10% concentration in baits
      composed of meat, fish and cereals or other type baits (8c).
                                    I.  EFFICACY
      Important Pests Controlled:  Norway rats.  Less effective against roof
      rats (8c).
           A single dose is usually all that is necessary until reinfestation
      occurs.  Effectiveness is lost in storage.  Excellent for use in quickly
      reducing Norway rat populations prior to the use of anticoagulant baits
      (8c).
                              II.  PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

      MOLECULAR FORMULA:  C32 H44 O12 (62)
      MOLECULAR WEIGHT:   620.7 (62)
      PHYSICAL STATE:     Scilliroside forms hydrated prisms (from aqueous
                          methanol) which lose c. 8% m/m in vacuo giving a
                          hemihydrate (62).
      MELTING POINT:      168-170 C (decomposing at 200 C) (scilliroside)
                          (62)
      SOLUBILITY:         Sparingly soluble in water (scilliroside) (62)
                          III.  HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
      OSHA STANDARD:  NA
      NIOSH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      ACGIH RECOMMENDED LIMIT:  NA
      TOXICOLOGY
           A.  ACUTE TOXICITY
               DERMAL:  Irritating to the skin (8c).
               ORAL:    LD50 = 0.7 mg/kg (male rat); 0.43 mg/kg (female
                          rat) (62).
           B.  SUBACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY:
           To be developed.
                         IV.  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
           Pigs and cats survived 16 mg/kg, fowls survived 400 mg/kg (62).
                       V.  EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES
           The chemical information provided below has been condensed from
      original source documents, primarily from "Recognition and Management
      of Pesticide Poisonings", 3rd ed. by Donald P.  Morgan, which have been
      footnoted.  This information has been provided in this form for your
      convenience and general guidance only.  In specific cases, further
      consultation and reference may be required and is recommended.  This
      information is not intended as a substitute for a more exhaustive
      review of the literature nor for the judgement of a physician or other
      trained professional.
           If poisoning is suspected, do not wait for symptoms to develop.
      Contact a physician, the nearest hospital, or the nearest Poison
      Control Center.
      FREQUENT SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF POISONING:  Nausea and VOMITING are
      the predominant effects.  In the unlikely event that significant
      amounts of glycosides are absorbed, cardiac arrhythmias and slowing
      might be expected.  Convulsions have not been observed in humans as
      they have in rats (25).
      NOTES TO PHYSICIAN:
      1.  Significant toxicity is not expected from this agent.  If, for some
          reason, a significant amount is retained in the stomach, remove it
          by gastric INTUBATION, ASPIRATION, AND LAVAGE, followed by 0.5
          gm/kg SODIUM or MAGNESIUM SULFATE in 1-6 ounces water.
      2.  Monitor ELECTROCARDIOGRAM for arrhythmias and conduction
          disturbances characteristic of digitalis (25).
                        VI.  FIRE AND EXPLOSION INFORMATION
      To be developed.
                                VII.  COMPATIBILITY
      To be developed.
                             VIII.  PROTECTIVE MEASURES
      STORAGE AND HANDLING:  Store only in metal or glass containers (8c).
                        IX.  PROCEDURES FOR SPILLS AND LEAKS
                      IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL, DAY OR NIGHT
                                   (800) 424-9300
                       PESTICIDE TEAM SAFETY NETWORK/CHEMTREC
                               X.  LITERATURE CITED
       8c. Thomson, W.T.  1980.  Agricultural chemicals - book III:
               fumigants, growth regulators, repellents, and rodenticides.
               1981 revised ed.  Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.  182 pp.
      25.  Morgan, D.P.  1982.  Recognition and management of pesticide
               poisonings, 3rd ed.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
               Washington, DC.  120 pp.
      56.  Farm Chemicals Handbook, 70th ed.  1984.  R. T. Meister, G. L.
               Berg, C. Sine, S. Meister, and J. Poplyk, eds.  Meister
               Publishing Co., Willoughby, OH.
      62.  The Pesticide Manual:  A World Compendium, 7th ed.  1983.  C.R.
               Worthing, ed.  The British Crop Protection Council, Croydon,
               England.  695 pp.
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